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GPS Monitoring Practices in Community Supervision and the Potential Impact of Advanced Analytics, Version 1.0 (2016)

"The first electronic monitoring (EM) devices were developed in the 1960s with the intent of providing feedback to young-adult-offender volunteers to facilitate their rehabilitation, but that approach was not widely accepted. Following their reemergence in the 1980s in support of a more punitive model of offender treatment, such devices were used principally for home detention applications. By 1990 radio-frequency (RF) technologies were in-use in all 50 states."

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