"The first electronic monitoring (EM) devices were developed in the 1960s with the intent of providing feedback to young-adult-offender volunteers to facilitate their rehabilitation, but that approach was not widely accepted. Following their reemergence in the 1980s in support of a more punitive model of offender treatment, such devices were used principally for home detention applications. By 1990 radio-frequency (RF) technologies were in-use in all 50 states."
GPS Monitoring Practices in Community Supervision and the Potential Impact of Advanced Analytics, Version 1.0 (2016)
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