NEARLY FIVE MILLION adults are under community supervision (i.e., probation or parole) in the United States (Maruschak & Parks, 2012). Many of them are placed under community supervision due to drug-related criminal offenses. According to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (NCASA, 2010), approximately 70 to 85 percent of all convicted offenders have violated drug laws, were intoxicated at the time of the offense, committed the offense to support a drug habit, or have a history of drug addiction. Drug arrests have fluctuated over the last ten to fifteen years, but have remained fairly stable in overall arrest counts. In 2014, of all possession drug arrests (representing 83% of drug arrest totals), marijuana remains the most significant problem (40%); but, heroin, cocaine, and their derivatives are second (17%) and climbing since 2009, while synthetic or manufactured drugs fall behind (5%), and all other drugs are collapsed together (21%) (FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2015). Opioid dependence is gaining momentum as a particular problem for criminal justice systems, as it includes both illegal drugs (e.g., heroin) and prescription painkillers (e.g., oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine) that are being used for non-medical purposes.