According to Don Andrews and James Bonta (The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, 2010), the following are risk factors contributing to an individual's criminal conduct.
- Antisocial/pro-criminal attitudes and values.
- Pro-criminal associates and isolation from others who are anti-criminal.
- Temperamental and personality factors, including pyschopathy, impulsivity, and other cognitive deficits.
- History of antisocial behavior.
- Familial factors that include criminality, family psychological and dysfunctional patterns.
- Low levels of personal education, vocational, or financial achievement and unstable employment.
- Lower-class origins (assessed by neighborhood conditions and parental achievements).
- Personal distress (strain, alienation, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, etc.).
- Other combinations of biological/neuropsychological indicators.