Resources on Justice Involved Women - Assessment & Case Management
The development of new risk/needs assessments specifically designed for female offenders is discussed. This report is comprised of these sections:
- The case for women's needs;
- Development of new assessments;
- Construction validation research;
- Full instruments;
- Implementation considerations;
- Obtaining the gender-responsive assessments;
- And conclusion.
“The outcome evaluation [for the Women Offender Case Management Model (WOCMM) implemented in Connecticut probation] focuses on determining whether participation in the project reduces future involvement in the criminal justice system as measured by recidivism over a fixed length follow-up period. The outcome evaluation employs a comparison group to determine if participants have more positive outcomes than a group of women with similar characteristics who were not exposed to the model” (p. 1). Recidivism rates are provided for WOCMM participants and the retrospective comparison matched sample for misdemeanor arrest, misdemeanor arrest with conviction, felony arrest, felony arrest with conviction, any arrest, any arrest with conviction, and any negative outcome (including arrests as well as absconding and technical violations). It appears that WOCMM offers a positive gender-responsive impact resulting in lower recidivism rates for project participants.
The gender-responsive Women Offender Case Management Model (WOCMM) is described. This document covers: the history of the project; philosophy and core practices; process incorporating four core elements (e.g., engage and assess, enhance motivation, implement the case plan, and review progress); preparing for implementation; and evaluation.
This paper describes assessments of female offenders used by correctional agencies and the programs and resources provided by these agencies to meet female offenders' needs. "The two, assessments and programs/services go together. The assessments tell us what is needed and the programs address identified needs" (p. 43). Topics discussed include: gender-responsive risk assessments and the risk factors they identify; women's pathways to crime—child abuse pathway, relational pathway, and the social and human capital pathway; mental health, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and parental stress; risk factors by correctional setting—prisons, pre-release, and probation; translating the gender-specific research into practice; interventions for women offender populations; and the Gender-Informed Practices Assessment (GIPA) 12 domains.
This study will interest those individuals trying to accurately assess the risk and needs of female offenders. Sections following an abstract include: introduction; gender-responsive needs; gender-neutral risk factors; this study; method; results regarding probation, prison, and pre-release; and discussion. While the validity was high for a gender-responsive supplement to a gender-neutral assessment, 'findings for both gender-neutral and gender-responsive domains suggested different treatment priorities for women from those currently put forward in correctional theory and policy'.
In 2008, the National Institute of Corrections in cooperation with the University of Cincinnati announced the availability of a series of new risk/need assessments for adult, women offenders. The assessments include: 1) a full instrument, The Women’s Risk/Needs Assessment (WRNA), which assesses both gender-neutral and gender-responsive factors and affords separate forms for probation, prison, and pre-release; and 2) the Women’s Risk/Needs Assessment - Trailer (WRNA-T) which is designed to supplement existing risk/needs assessments such as the Level of Service Inventory - Revised or the Northpointe COMPAS. The WRNA-T is also available in separate forms for probation, prison, and pre-release populations.