This is a very good guide to interventions effective at reducing juvenile delinquency. "The purpose of implementing a delinquency intervention is to prevent criminal and antisocial behavior, reduce recidivism for those already in the juvenile justice system, and reduce youths’ dynamic/changeable risk factors (termed “criminogenic needs”) that are proven to be the major causes of juvenile criminal behavior. There are three levels at which we define delinquency interventions. The level an intervention is placed within is dependent on the empirical research conducted on that practice, and the results of those analyses. The levels progress in terms of methodological rigor and effectiveness of the practice, with evidence-based practices requiring the highest level of rigor and the highest level of program success with results lasting at least one year from completion" (p. 3). Thirty-eight practices are reviewed and organized into three areas—evidence-based, promising, or practices with demonstrated effectiveness. The entries for each program note the author, contact person, program overview, office location, whether it results in proven recidivism reduction, criminogenic need, target population, treatment setting, modality, training for trainers and associated fees, trainer certification, facilitator prerequisites, program fidelity, and bibliography.
"The best way to help prevent a youth’s subsequent contact with the juvenile justice system is to prevent him or her from being involved with the system in the first place. The field has been engaged in significant efforts to divert status offenders and other low-risk youth from ever coming into contact with the system. The focus of this white paper is on what works to promote successful reentry for those youth who are under the supervision of a juvenile justice system, which encompasses a process that begins the moment any youth comes into contact with the system, no matter how brief or at what level, to support their successful transition from supervision to a crime-free and productive adulthood" (p. 3). This white paper is divided into two parts. Part One—Policies and Practices That Reduce Recidivism and Improve Other Youth Outcomes: Principle 1--base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; Principle 2--adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; Principle 3--employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and Principle 4--tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents. Part Two—Key Implementation Strategies, Structures, and Supports: Principle 1--base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; Principle 2-- adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; Principle 3--employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and Principle 4--tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents.
This webinar covers significant recommendations explained in the white paper "Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System". "Participants learn about the four principles that must undergird any strategy to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system. Participants also learn how to implement the principles effectively, and hear about how some state and local juvenile justice systems have operationalized the principles in practice." The four principles are: base supervision, service, and resource-allocation decisions on the results of validated risk and needs assessments; adopt and effectively implement programs and services demonstrated to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and use data to evaluate system performance and direct system improvements; employ a coordinated approach across service systems to address youth’s needs; and tailor system policies, programs, and supervision to reflect the distinct developmental needs of adolescents. The final part of this presentation, "Translating Theory into Practice" shows how the Oregon Youth Authority uses its comprehensive statewide integrated Juvenile Justice Information System (JJIS) to enhance the agency's decisions through the use of data.
“[R]esearchers from two long-term longitudinal studies of delinquency— the Denver Youth Survey and the Fast Track Project—collaborated to establish common delinquency measures, conduct analyses, and integrate findings on developmental patterns of girls’ offending from childhood through adolescence ” (p. 1-2). This bulletin presents some of their major results. These are: prevalence and frequency of offending—ever-prevalence, prevalence by age and/or grade, and frequency of offending behavior among girls reporting delinquency; initiation and desistance patterns—girls’ first offenses, age of first offense, and delinquency patterns by grade, transitions between delinquency patterns over time, temporal patterns of delinquency (persisters, desisters, intermittent, and late bloomers); and developmental pathways in girls’ delinquency—developmental sequences, delinquency patterns by grade, transitions between delinquency patterns over time for the Fast Track (multi-state) and the Denver studies. Some of the conclusions from this report include: most of the girls were delinquent in their childhood or adolescent years; a wide range of offending behaviors was reported; offenses were not frequent; the majority of girls did not have the same single beginning offense; and girls began and stopped offending at different ages.
A "review of selective and indicated mentoring interventions that have been evaluated for their effects on delinquency outcomes for youth . . . and key associated outcomes" is presented (p. 2). Sections in addition to a synopsis and abstract include: background; objectives; methods -- criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies in review; results; and conclusions. "These results suggest mentoring, at least as represented by the included studies, has positive effects for these important public health problems, albeit from small to modest in effect size" (p. 20).
This paper offers an innovative way to reduce the incarceration of juveniles in the United Sates based on randomized controlled trials in Chicago which showed a reduction in arrests for violent crime by an average of 40% with benefits to the community of almost 30 times the program's costs. "Improving the long-term life outcomes of disadvantaged youths remains a top policy priority in the United States. Unfortunately, long-term progress in improving outcomes like high school graduation rates and reduction of violent crime has been limited, partly because finding ways to successfully improve outcomes for disadvantaged youths (particularly males) has proven to be challenging. We believe one reason so many previous strategies have failed is because they at least implicitly assume that young people are forward-looking and consider the long-term consequences of their actions before they act. But a growing body of research in psychology and behavioral economics suggests that a great deal of everyone’s behavior happens intuitively and automatically, with little deliberate thought. Although it is often helpful for us to rely on automatic responses to guide our daily behavior, doing so can also get us into trouble, with consequences that are particularly severe for young people growing up in distressed urban areas where gangs, drugs, and guns are prevalent. We thus propose that the federal government aim to provide each teenager living in poverty in the United States with one year of behaviorally informed programming, intended to help youths recognize high-stakes situations when their automatic responses may be maladaptive" (p. 1).
"This report identifies and describes interventions that are effective in reducing recidivism and preventing crime" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary are: introduction; the evidence-based concept and its application; method; incarceration and its impact on crime; effective recidivism reduction programs -- education and vocational, substance abuse treatment, drug courts, sex offender treatment, mental health, cognitive-behavioral, and juvenile offender; effective early prevention programs; implementation issues; and summary.