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Criminal justice system

“This paper revisits the much argued question about the relative merits of prison and community sentences. We decided to write it out of a sense that debate has become trapped in an unproductive Punch and Judy fight about which of the two sentences ‘works’ better. To anticipate our conclusions, assessed in narrow instrumental terms the arguments are more finely balanced than either side usually recognise. However, pro- and anti-prison camps are really arguing – in an oblique sort of way – about broader values, and if this paper helps to promote a more mature debate about penal policy that recognises this, we shall have succeeded in our task” (p. 5). Sections of this publication include: introduction; who is right—general deterrence, the impact of the punishment in the punished and differences in revocation rates, incarceration and keeping people who offend out of circulation, and cost-benefit analysis; and the purpose of community or custodial sentences.

Balancing the Effects Cover

This meeting focused primarily on topics related to the role of the jail in the local criminal justice system. Contents include: meeting highlights; justice system coordination and cooperation -- how the jail benefits and the system is improved; criminal justice coordination and cooperation; issues in defining and re-defining the jail's mission; role of the jail in contributing to the efficiency of the local criminal justice system; community oriented policing; roundtable discussion of implications for large jails of the presentations made; legal issues update; and future meeting topics. Appendixes include materials referred to in the meeting summary, meeting agenda, and meeting participants.

Proceedings of Cover

"[D]irection to tribal jurisdictions interested in conducting a justice system assessment for the purposes of addressing systemic issues raised in the development of detention and correctional facilities" is provided (p. 7). This guide is comprised of the following sections: introduction; what a justice assessment is; impact of the justice system assessment on detention and corrections bed space needs; approach to conducting a system assessment; steps in the assessment process; unique characteristics of Indian Country justice systems; summary; key parties in the tribal justice system; and structure of tribal justice systems.

Project Guide: Tribal Justice System Assessment Cover

"After decades of stability from the 1920s to the early 1970s, the rate of imprisonment in the United States more than quadrupled during the last four decades. The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. rate of incarceration, with nearly 1 out of every 100 adults in prison or jail, is 5 to 10 times higher than the rates in Western Europe and other democracies. The U.S. prison population is largely drawn from the most disadvantaged part of the nation's population: mostly men under age 40, disproportionately minority, and poorly educated. Prisoners often carry additional deficits of drug and alcohol addictions, mental and physical illnesses, and lack of work preparation or experience. The growth of incarceration in the United States during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for U.S. society. [The report] examines research and analysis of the dramatic rise of incarceration rates and its affects. This study makes the case that the United States has gone far past the point where the numbers of people in prison can be justified by social benefits and has reached a level where these high rates of incarceration themselves constitute a source of injustice and social harm."

Chapters following an executive summary are: introduction; rising incarceration rates; policies and practices contributing to high rates of incarceration; the underlying causes of rising incarceration—crime, politics, and social change; the crime prevention effects of incarceration; the experience of imprisonment; consequences for health and mental health; consequences for employment and earnings; consequences for families and children; consequences for communities; wider consequences for U.S. society; the prison in society—values and principles; findings, conclusions, and implications.

The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences Cover

"This eleventh edition of the World Prison Population List gives details of the number of prisoners held in 223 prison systems in independent countries and dependent territories. It shows the differences in the levels of imprisonment across the world and makes possible an estimate of the world prison population total. The figures include both pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners and those who have been convicted and sentenced. The information is the latest available at the end of October 2015" (p. 1). There are more than 10.35 million people incarcerated throughout the world with the most being in the United States--more than 2.2 million. Seychelles has the highest prison population rate in the world with 799 per 100,000 of its total population. It is followed by the United States (698), St. Kitts & Nevis (607), Turkmenistan (583), and U.S. Virgin Islands (542). More than half (54%) of all countries and territories have rates lower than 150 per 100,000. There has been an increase in the female population since 2000, with the male population increasing 18%. Five tables follow a list of key points from this world population list. Each table shows countries divided into subgroups, prison population total, dates of recorded figure, estimated national population, prison population rate, and source of prison population total. The five tables are: Africa—Northern, Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern; Americas—North, Central, Caribbean, and South; Asia—Western, Central, South Central, South Eastern, and Eastern; Europe—Northern, Southern, Western, Central and Eastern, and Europe/Asia; and Oceania.

World Prison Population List|Eleventh Edition Cover

Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of training programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its twelfth edition, and renamed from the Environmental Scan to the Corrections Environmental Scan, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not to be comprehensive in scope. The methods for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of news sources, websites, and corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the NIC Information Center in supporting the work of corrections professionals, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, global, and independent sources. The report is arranged with the topics: population, demographics, economy, workforce, technology, substance abuse and mental health, healthcare, and crime and recidivism statistics. Each section gives a summary of trends and developments in corrections, and includes national and global perspectives. A new feature debuts the new NIC website and highlights the State Statistics Information page. This web page provides lists of resources related to local, state, and federal statistics displayed to help you see the current state of the corrections industry as of the last set of reported data.

Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 11th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive. 

The method for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers, and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, and independent sources. The report is arranged starting with global and broader influences on corrections and moves to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area” (p. 3). 

Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and mental health care in corrections.

Environmental Scan 2016 cover

“Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic, and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 10th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons, and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that will potentially influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive. The method for selecting articles, reports, and other materials was based on a scan of popular magazines, newspapers, and websites as well as corrections-specific publications. As part of the ongoing work of the Information Center in supporting the work of corrections practitioners, staff regularly monitors reports and publications from state, national, and independent sources. The report is arranged starting with global and broader influences on corrections and moves to specific corrections issues. Each section of the report gives an overview of the topic followed by corrections-specific trends and developments in this area” (p. 3). Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and mass incarceration.

Environmental Scan 2015

“Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 9th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool that corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Because there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive” (p. 3). Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and cost of incarceration and changing corrections policy.

Environmental Scan 2014 Cover

“Beginning in the late 1990’s, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) Information Center began scanning social, economic and corrections issues to inform the development of programs and services offered by NIC. This report, now in its 8th edition, has continued to evolve into a popular tool corrections practitioners also use to inform their work in jails, prisons and community corrections. Since there are many issues beyond what is addressed in this environmental scan that potentially will influence corrections, this report is intended to give a broad overview of selected current and anticipated trends and not intended to be comprehensive” (p. 3). Sections of this report are: introduction; international developments; demographic and social trends; the workforce; technology; public opinion; the economy and government spending; criminal justice trends; corrections populations and trends; and the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Environmental Scan 2013 cover

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