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  • Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada

    Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada Cover
    Condom Distribution in U.S. Correctional Facilities and Canada

    This is an excellent document that provides information about how correctional facilities provide condoms within their walls. "Five cities or counties have condom distribution programs in their jails: Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington DC, and two states, Vermont and Mississippi, have condom distribution programs in their prisons" (p. 1). Also included is information gotten from the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) about their issuance of condoms.

    Document
  • The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration

    The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration Cover
    The Debt Penalty: Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration

    "Financial debt associated with legal system involvement is a pressing issue that affects the criminal justice system, offenders, and taxpayers. Mere contact with the criminal justice system often results in fees and fines that increase with progression through the system … This report explores the causes and effects of perpetual criminal debt and offers solutions for encouraging ex-offender payment." Sections of this report include: introduction to criminal justice fees; inmate wages; examples of user fees and penalties for non-payment of criminal justice debt in eight states; restitution; child support; debt priorities; state and federal prioritization of offender financial obligations; debt collection; common collection practices and associated hidden costs to the ex-offender; effects of criminal debt; sources of offender debt, consequences of non-payment, and barriers to ways to reduce accumulated debt; employment wages; financial assistance for ex-offenders; release funds (gate money) in selected sates; eight proposed solutions; and conclusion.

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  • Safe Sex in Jail

    Safe Sex in Jail Cover
    Safe Sex in Jail

    "Safe sex is generally defined as a set of practices designed to reduce the risk of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, in a jail setting, the definition of safe sex is expanded. Insofar as a jail officer is concerned, “safe sex” is translated “no sex.” Unfortunately, there are too many instances of jail officers being involved sexually with inmates. The outcome is never good, often resulting in health, family and legal consequences for the offending officer" (p. 1). This is an excellent article describing the legal consequences arising from a correctional officer having sex with an inmate. Sections cover: a national problem; recognizing the problem; legal issues; consequences of sexual misconduct; preventing sexual misconduct; the supervisor's responsibility; what to expect if there is litigation; and the bottom line—no sex in jail.

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  • Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar]

    Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar] Cover
    Using Title IV-E for Juvenile Justice: The Multnomah County Experience [Webinar]

    This webinar explains how your agency can utilize funds from Title IV of the Social Security Act, Part E – Federal Payments for Foster Care and Adoption Assistance for programming in your agency. Topics discussed include: what Title IV-E is; classification of Title IV-E claiming; what juvenile agencies can receive Title IV-E reimbursements for; developing and implementing a Title IV-E Claiming Program; stakeholders need for collaboration; the critical role of the Oregon Department of Human Services in collaboration; the critical role of the Multnomah County Circuit Court; implementing the Title IV-E program—a myriad of changes in business practices; why implementation is so monumental; innovation in action—Youth Villages Intercept Model; programs and services to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year by Title IV-E; recommendations for Title IV-E implementation; Administration for Children and Families (ACF) regions; child welfare placement authority; three components of a Title IV-E Administrative Claim; definition of a reasonable candidate; court orders and case plans; and benefits for your department.

    Video
  • The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison

    The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison Cover
    The Effect of Collateral Consequence Laws on State Rates of Returns to Prison

    "In this dissertation I [Sohoni] examine the effect of states’ collateral consequence laws in the categories of voting, access to public records, employment, public housing, public assistance, and driver’s licenses. I examine the impact of these laws on state rates of returns to prison, as measured by percent of prison admissions that were people on conditional release when they entered prison, the percent of exits from parole that were considered unsuccessful due returning to incarceration; the percent of exits from parole that were returned to incarceration for a new sentence, and the percent of exits from parole that were returned to incarceration for a technical violation. I also run an additional fixed effects analysis on the effect of restrictions on Temporary Assistance for Needy Children (TANF) over a seven year period." This study is the first one done to address what is known empirically about how certain collateral consequence laws negatively influence the ability of ex-offenders to reenter their communities. This dissertation is comprised of five chapters: introduction to reentry and the era of mass incarceration, goals and realities of collateral consequence laws, and the current study; collateral consequence laws in the United States—overview, legal challenges and concerns, effects, and collateral consequences and recidivism; data and methods; findings regarding voting, access to records, employment, public housing, public assistance, driver's licenses, the cumulative effect, fixed effects analysis of TANF restrictions, and discussion of results; and conclusions.

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  • ADAM II 2013 Annual Report

    ADAM II 2013 Annual Report Cover
    ADAM II 2013 Annual Report

    The prevalence of drug use in the male arrestee population is determined by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program II (ADAM II). The major drugs monitored are marijuana, crack and powder cocaine, heroin and other opiates, and methamphetamine. Four sections follow an executive summary: ADAM II overview; the ADAM II sample; drug use and drug market activity among arrestees; and summary and conclusions. The most commonly detected drug was marijuana followed by cocaine metabolites.

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  • Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach

    Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach Cover
    Girls, Status Offenses and the Need for a Less Punitive and More Empowering Approach

    “’Why are girls so much more likely than boys to be petitioned and incarcerated for a status offense?’ This brief explores the complex answer to this question, and previews steps that can be taken to unravel, understand, and better address the complex needs of girls who engage in status offense behaviors” (p. 1). This is an excellent resource for people who work with girls who are status offenders. Sections of this publication cover: the prevalence of status offenses for girls; how different expectations of girls lead to a double standard; the need for gender-responsive services; defiance or self-defense; girls, structural racism, and implicit bias; the pathways girls take into the juvenile justice system are different from boys—they need different interventions not the same ones for boys painted pink; judicial leadership in Nevada; moving toward a less punitive and more empowering approach; and implications for further juvenile justice reform.

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  • Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP

    Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP Cover
    Health Coverage and Care for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: The Role of Medicaid and CHIP

    "This brief provides an overview of the health and mental health needs of girls and boys in the juvenile justice system and the role of Medicaid in addressing those needs. It focuses on the circumstances of those girls and boys who are placed in juvenile justice residential facilities, the discontinuity of Medicaid coverage for those youth, and the options for improving coverage, continuity of care and access to needed services post-discharge, including new opportunities provided by the Affordable Care Act" (p. 1). Sections of this publication cover: profile of youth in the juvenile justice system; types of juvenile justice residential placements; health needs of girls and boys in the juvenile justice system; health services for youth in juvenile justice residential placements; the roles of Medicaid and the Children's health Insurance Program (CHIP); and key issues looking forward. Also includes are these appendixes: "Girls and Boys in the Juvenile Justice by State, 2010" (table); "Girls Health Screen (GHS)"—description; and "Origins of Medicaid's Inmate Exclusion".

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  • Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report

    Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report Cover
    Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report

    “States across the country are increasingly seeking cost-effective and evidence-based strategies to enhance public safety and manage their corrections and supervision populations. One such effort emerged in the mid-2000s, when several states experimented with a criminal justice reform effort built on a foundation of bipartisan collaboration and data-driven policy development. This model—justice reinvest-ment—yielded promising results, supporting cost-effective, evidence-based policies projected to generate meaningful savings for states while maintaining a focus on public safety. In response to these early successes, Congress appropriated funds to the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to launch the Justice Reinvestment Initiative (JRI) in 2010 in partnership with the Pew Charitable Trusts (Pew). The initiative formalized the process and provided both financial support and in-kind technical assistance for states to engage in this work. This report describes the JRI model and the experiences and interim outcomes in 17 participating JRI states: Arkansas, Delaware, Geor¬gia, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Caro¬lina, South Dakota, and West Virginia” (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; the JRI Model described; population and cost drivers and responses; projected and preliminary outcomes; reinvestment; challenges; and concluding remarks and implications. The appendix provides case studies of the 17 participating states.

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  • Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders

    Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders Cover
    Extended-Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders

    New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374 n. 13, p. 1232-1242, March 31, 2016


    "Extended-release naltrexone, a sustained-release monthly injectable formulation of the full mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is effective for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence. Data supporting its effectiveness in U.S. criminal justice populations are limited … In this trial involving criminal justice offenders, extended-release naltrexone was associated with a rate of opioid relapse that was lower than that with usual treatment. Opioid-use prevention effects waned after treatment discontinuation" (p. 1232).

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  • Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending

    Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending Cover
    Mindfulness Meditation in American Correctional Facilities: A "What Works" Approach to Reducing Reoffending

    This article explains why mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can be effective in offender rehabilitation and reduce recidivism. Sections address: the program structure of MBIs in correctional settings in the U.S.; findings from controlled research studies in U.S. prisons; mindfulness as a reoffending reduction strategy resulting in improved "inmate levels of negative affect; substance use and drug-related self-control; anger and hostility; relaxation capacity; and self-esteem and optimism" (p. 50); and integration and rollout issues.

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  • A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement

    A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement Cover
    A Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Interventions Targeting Women with Criminal Justice Involvement

    Anyone working with female offenders should read this systematic review of 13 studies from 1980 to 2014. It provides a very good look at effective HIV prevention interventions for justice-involved women. "As compared with interventions without an explicit theoretical orientation, interventions using a social cognitive theory or motivational interviewing orientation were more efficacious. Interventions delivered fully or partially in the community setting were also more efficacious than those delivered only within a correctional facility. We conclude that extant behavioral interventions do not adequately consider contextual and social factors that influence women’s sexual behavior, but rather focus on individual deficits in knowledge and skills. Findings underscore the need for continued development of theoretically based HIV prevention interventions that follow women with criminal justice involvement from correctional settings to the community, explicitly acknowledging the role of social and contextual determinants of HIV risk" (p. 253).

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  • Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar]

    › Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar] Cover
    Justice-Involved Women: Understanding Trauma and Violence [Webinar]

    "This webinar will focus on both the violence and aggression – including interpersonal and domestic violence – women have experienced as well as when they have perpetrated … Beyond Violence is the first manualized intervention for women that focuses on anger and utilizes a multi-level approach and a variety of evidence-based therapeutic strategies (i.e., psycho-education, role playing, mindfulness activities, cognitive-behavioral restructuring, and grounding skills for trauma triggers). This four-level model of violence prevention considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. The program is designed to assist women in understanding trauma, the multiple aspects of anger, and emotional regulation." This webinar will: describe violent female offenders; define trauma-informed and gender-responsive services; describe the social-ecological model of violence; describe the theoretical foundation of Beyond Violence; discuss the evidence-base and research on Beyond Violence; and introduce the Beyond Violence curriculum.

    Webinar
  • A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing

    A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing Cover
    A Note on HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2: Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing

    "HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) and 42 CFR Part 2 (Title 42: Public Health, Part 2—Confidentiality of Substance Abuse Patient Records) are two of the most commonly cited barriers to cross-domain information sharing" (p. 1). This brief takes the ten most common myths about justice-health information sharing and explains the realities behind them.

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  • ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course

    ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course Cover
    ‘‘From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day’’: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course

    This article examines gang membership through a life-course lens. The life-course approach looks at how events in an individual's life history affect that person's future decisions and actions. Results are presented for: the correlates of gang membership in a national sample; the age-graded prevalence of gang membership; distinct pathways of gang membership in the life-course; and correlates of gang membership pathways. This study's findings "demonstrate that gang membership is strongly age-graded, much like criminal offending … While gang membership is overwhelmingly an adolescence-oriented phenomenon, the findings indicate that youth cycle in and out of gangs at distinct points in the life-course" (p. 366).

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  • Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court

    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court Cover
    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court

    "This policy update explores the reasons why states should end the indiscriminate shackling of youth and highlights the strategies states and localities have successfully used to end this damaging practice" (p. 1). Sections cover: what the problem is with shackling of children—it can cause physical and psychological harm, it disproportionately affects children of color, it is inconsistent with the rehabilitative goals of the juvenile justice system, it harms a juvenile's Constitutional rights, and its routine use on all youth appearing in court is unnecessary for public safety; and shifting policy to unshackle youth—the use of statute, court rule-making authority, or litigation.

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  • Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar]

    Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar] Cover
    Implementing Evidence-Based Services [Webinar]

    If you are looking for an excellent introduction to how to implement evidence-based practices (EBPs) in your juvenile agency, then this webinar is for you. Topics discussed include: how to identify EBPs; best proven model programs; advantages of proven EBPs; getting customer buy-in for EBP implementation; facing agency challenges during EBP adoption; key drivers; embedding EBPs in a juvenile justice agency; referral and engagement-- data collection; data collection example; analyzing family engagement barriers; family engagement strategies; EBP implementation—Inter-operability Framework; funding and sustainability; and EBP implementation in 8 states.

    Webinar
  • Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice

    Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice Cover
    Bridging the Gap Between Health and Justice

    This article "aims to demonstrate how public health issues are inherent in numerous aspects of the criminal justice system. Then it will offer a conceptual framework for applying many of the fundamental principles of public health to the realm of criminal justice—whether specifically to those who are incarcerated or otherwise under supervision of the justice system or, more broadly, to a broader range of social ills" (p. 1). Sections of this report cover: the nexus of health and justice; sentencing and health concerns; intake and screening; rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration—health impediments; discharge planning and continuum of care; a public health approach to criminal justice; health concerns beyond incarceration; the epidemiological model; and the cycle of infection.

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  • Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook

    Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook Cover
    Cell Phone Forensics in a Correctional Setting: Guidebook

    "This guidebook provides correctional administrators with a brief, yet comprehensive and informative, view of cell phone forensic technologies. It reviews the evolving role of cell phone forensics in correctional institutions and presents issues to consider when acquiring and implementing these technologies. It also addresses the opportunities and challenges involved in selecting technologies and implementing them in correctional settings" (p. 8). Six chapters follow an executive summary: statement of the problem—reasons for the importance of cell phone forensics; what agencies need to know about cell phone forensics; technology; establishing a cell phone forensics capacity—assessing resource needs based on historical and projected data, funding needed for start-up and ongoing operations, issues related to procuring technology tools, software and hardware, photo documenting, staff resources required, training requirements, and physical site requirements; implementation—legal issues and case law, law enforcement coordination, prioritizing evidence to prevent backlogs, evidence collection and retention issues, importance of policies and procedures, and lessons learned and success stories; and conclusion.

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  • Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00

    Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00 Cover
    Criminal Justice Restraints Standard NIJ Standard 1001.00

    "This standard specifies the minimum requirements for form and fit, performance, testing, documentation and labeling of restraints intended to be used by criminal justice personnel to restrain subjects. This standard addresses only wrist to wrist and ankle to ankle restraints. This standard does not specify requirements for aftermarket keys or any accessories. All testing required in this standard shall be performed with no accessories attached. This standard does not address any restraint constructed of natural/nonsynthetic materials (e.g., leather, natural rubber, cotton). "(p. 1).

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  • Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview

    Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview Cover
    Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview

    "Although the use of pretrial risk assessments has increased in recent years, the proportion of jurisdictions employing these instruments remains low, and is estimated to be no more than 10%. This low adoption rate is due in large part to the fact that existing risk assessments require that information be collected through interviews with defendants. Conducting these interviews and verifying the information is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process that many jurisdictions cannot afford" (p. 3). There were only eight multi-jurisdictional pretrial risk-assessments being used in 2012, all of which depended on defendant interviews. The foundation for an effective non-interview-based risk assessment was the Kentucky Pretrial Risk Assessment (KPRA), an objective instrument comprised of 12 risk factors, some of which were interview-based. The validated assessment was the KPRA-S, a seven risk factor assessment. The KPRA-S was found to accurately determine low-, moderate-, and high-risk defendants. The assessment was also found to predict those individuals prone to fail to appear (FTA) or commit new criminal activity (NCA) as well as the KPRA.

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  • Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities

    Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities Cover
    Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities

    This is essential reading for anyone working within a correctional setting. "In today’s world, criminal justice personnel not only have the “Dangers and Challenges” that are normally associated with the “Holidays”, they now have to factor in the possibility of terrorist activities directed at them and their facilities" (p. 1). Sections offer clear explanations for the following crucial preparations: correctional law enforcement and court facilities should be extra vigilant at the perimeters of their facilities; correctional facilities need to be extra cautious during visiting hours throughout the "Holiday Season"; law enforcement and sheriff’s patrol units need to be extremely attentive to their surroundings by increasing their own "situational awareness"; and offender security issues.

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  • Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation

    Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation Cover
    Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation

    This publication "contains invited articles on community corrections, with special emphasis on successful implementation strategies. A common thread that runs through these articles relates to what is needed to better ensure fidelity to evidence-based practices in community supervision and treatment. The research and implementation strategies shared by the authors should provide greater guidance to agency and program administrators working to assimilate evidence-based practices into their organizations" (p. 1). Articles include: "Current Practice and Challenges in Evidence-Based Community Corrections" by Stephen M. Haas; "STICS: From Pilot Project to Wide-Scale Implementation" - review; "Motivational Interviewing Proficiency in Corrections" – review; "Ohio Youth Assessment System – Creation, Validation, and Implementation" – review; "Actuarial Risk/Need Assessment and Its Effect on Supervision Revocation" – review; and "Establishing the Proper Risk-Dosage Relationship" – review. Each review explains: why the study was done; what the program was and what the researchers did; what the researchers found; and what the implications are of the study for policy making. Also included are two review essays. "Review Essay: Implementing EBP in Community Corrections" discusses what works, EBP models, planned change, and dosage. "Review Essay: Moving Implementation of EBP Forward" looks at three challenges to implementing EBPs in community corrections programming.

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  • Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation

    Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation Cover
    Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation

    "The United States has long been a haven for those fleeing persecution and oppression. But today, the treatment for asylum seekers can be so terrible that some are asking to be sent back to the very countries they were escaping. This includes women who are locked up alongside men, sometimes the very men they were trying to escape … This is life for transgender women in U.S. immigration detention facilities … A six-month Fusion investigation found that conditions for transgender women locked up by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are often humiliating, dangerous, and even deadly … What makes ICE detainees different from prisoners is that they aren’t behind bars serving criminal sentences. Rather, they are locked up, waiting to see a judge who will decide whether or not they’ll be deported. A growing number of state and federal prisons across the country allow for transgender individuals to be housed based on their gender identity, regardless of their genitalia or sex at birth." Some of the sobering facts about transgender people under ICE detention are: on average, 75 transgender detainees are locked up each night—10% transgender men and 90% transgender women; of every 500 individuals, 1 detainee is transgender; of every 5 victims of confirmed sexual abuse, 1 victim is transgender. This report discusses: the housing of transgender detainees—transgender women not being housed with the female population; targets for prison rape during ICE detention; the detention-bed mandate of 2009; denial of needed medication; and alternative to detention.

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  • SMART: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking

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    SMART: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking

    Looking for a portal to a wealth of information about sex offending and sex offender management? Then this website is a must. It is home to the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART). "The SMART Office was authorized in the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006, which was signed into law on July 27, 2006. The responsibilities of the SMART Office include providing jurisdictions with guidance regarding the implementation of the Adam Walsh Act, and providing technical assistance to the states, territories, Indian tribes, local governments, and to public and private organizations. The SMART Office also tracks important legislative and legal developments related to sex offenders and administers grant programs related to the registration, notification, and management of sex offenders." Access is provided to: about SMART; SORNA (Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act); Indian Country; legislative history; case law updates; funding opportunities; National Symposium; tools and resources—SORNA tools, education and prevention, newsletters and publications, press releases, and links; newsroom; and the National Sex Offender Public Website (NSOPW).

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  • Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative

    Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative Cover
    Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative

    <p>Those people looking for a primer on what is currently known about sex offending and sex offender management need to read this report. "Perpetrators of sex crimes are often seen as needing special management practices. As a result, jurisdictions across the country have implemented laws and policies that focus specifically on sex offenders, often with extensive public support. At the same time, the criminal justice community has increasingly recognized that crime control and prevention strategies—including those targeting sex offenders—are far more likely to work when they are based on scientific evidence. Recognizing the important role scientific evidence plays, the SMART Office developed the Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative (SOMAPI), a project designed to assess the state of research and practice in sex offender management. Recommendations stemming from SOMAPI informed this report" (p. 1). This report is divided into two sections following a very thorough executive summary. Adult Section: incidence and prevalence of sexual offending; etiology of adult sexual offending; sex offender typologies; internet-facilitated sexual offending; adult sex offender recidivism; sex offender risk assessment; effectiveness of treatment of adult sex offenders; and sex offender management strategies. Juvenile Section: unique considerations regarding juveniles who commit sexual offenses; etiology and typologies; recidivism of juveniles who commit sexual offenses; assessment of risk for sexual reoffense; effectiveness of treatment; and registration and notification of juveniles who commit sexual offenses.</p>

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  • Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update Cover
    Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    "Despite being among the most widely used law enforcement tools in the U.S., registries and notification laws for people who commit sex offenses offer no clear public safety benefits—only a false sense of security. This makes it especially troubling that we subject youth to their many restrictions, which can have crippling consequences that last a lifetime. Though registration is not an effective way to reduce sex offending among adults and youth alike, it is an especially inappropriate response to youth, who are highly unlikely to become repeat sex offenders" (p. 1). Sections explain: registration and notification offer no clear public safety benefits; creating and maintaining registries is expensive; and registration harms youth and their families—registration causes psychological harm, prevents youth from participating in school and work, negatively impacts the families of youth who offend, and places youth at risk of victimization.

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  • Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update Cover
    Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    "Popular policy responses to youth who commit sex offenses, like listing them on sex offender registries, are largely based on misconceptions about why youth commit such offenses and how best to address their behavior. In fact, registries required by laws like the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) not only fail to protect child welfare and overall public safety, but actually jeopardize it, while taking an enormous toll on the youth who have offended. Fortunately, new research sheds light on why youth commit sex offenses and how to achieve the best outcomes for those they have harmed, the public, and the youth themselves" (p. 1). Sections explain: youth who commit sex offenses are still young people in development; most youth who commit sex offenses will never recidivate—the recidivism rate is 4%; youth who commit sex offense are not a special group; and youth who commit sex offenses respond well to treatment.

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  • Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout

    › Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout Cover
    Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout

    This paper offers an innovative way to reduce the incarceration of juveniles in the United Sates based on randomized controlled trials in Chicago which showed a reduction in arrests for violent crime by an average of 40% with benefits to the community of almost 30 times the program's costs. "Improving the long-term life outcomes of disadvantaged youths remains a top policy priority in the United States. Unfortunately, long-term progress in improving outcomes like high school graduation rates and reduction of violent crime has been limited, partly because finding ways to successfully improve outcomes for disadvantaged youths (particularly males) has proven to be challenging. We believe one reason so many previous strategies have failed is because they at least implicitly assume that young people are forward-looking and consider the long-term consequences of their actions before they act. But a growing body of research in psychology and behavioral economics suggests that a great deal of everyone’s behavior happens intuitively and automatically, with little deliberate thought. Although it is often helpful for us to rely on automatic responses to guide our daily behavior, doing so can also get us into trouble, with consequences that are particularly severe for young people growing up in distressed urban areas where gangs, drugs, and guns are prevalent. We thus propose that the federal government aim to provide each teenager living in poverty in the United States with one year of behaviorally informed programming, intended to help youths recognize high-stakes situations when their automatic responses may be maladaptive" (p. 1).

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  • Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States

    Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States Cover
    Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States

    "Crime and high rates of incarceration impose tremendous costs on society, with lasting negative effects on individuals, families, and communities. Rates of crime in the United States have been falling steadily, but still constitute a serious economic and social challenge. At the same time, the incarceration rate in the United States is so high—more than 700 out of every 100,000 people are incarcerated—that both crime scholars and policymakers alike question whether, for nonviolent criminals in particular, the social costs of incarceration exceed the social benefits … Despite the ongoing decline in crime, the incarceration rate in the United States remains at a historically unprecedented level. This high incarceration rate can have profound effects on society" and is extremely expensive for state and federal agencies (p. 1). This policy memo provides a clear and concise explanation of the impacts of incarceration on communities in the United States. The ten facts are organized into three chapters: the landscape of crime in the U.S.—offenders and victims; the extraordinary growth of mass incarceration in the U.S.; and the economic and social costs of crime and incarceration. Some of these facts include: the majority of criminal offenders are younger than age thirty; federal and state policies have driven up the incarceration rate over the past thirty years; and per capita expenditures on corrections more than tripled over the same time period.

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  • On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration

    On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration Cover
    On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration

    This report is an excellent introduction to the relationship between incarceration and public health and its significance for society. It is essential reading for anyone working within the fields of corrections and public health. Sections cover: the burden of disease behind bars—mental health, substance use and addiction, infectious disease, chronic disease, violence and self-harm, greater health disparities for women, and geriatric health; conditions of confinement and health—overcrowding, solitary confinement, sexual victimization, and quality of care; the health of communities--family structure, education and employment opportunities, housing stability and social entitlements, health insurance, and political capital; a political landscape ripe for reform; and the potential of the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—bolstering community capacity, strengthening front-end alternatives to arrest, prosecution, and incarceration, bridging health and justice systems, enabling outreach and care coordination, enrolling across the criminal justice continuum, granting Medicaid waivers and innovation, advancing health information technology, and regional challenges with the ACA.

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  • Positive Youth Justice Website

    Positive Youth Justice Website Cover
    Positive Youth Justice Website

    This website "is designed to support and promote youth justice programs that are informed by the science of adolescent development. Despite the obvious relevance of developmental science for the design and operation of youth justice programs, these concepts are not yet the dominant framework for interventions in youth justice. One way to increase the efficacy of youth justice would be to build programs and policies using the Positive Youth Justice Model (PYJ), which is a practical guide for applying developmental principles in justice settings … The Positive Youth Justice website is designed to explain and disseminate the concepts and strategies suggested by the PYJ Model." Points of access include: overview; background; changing the frame; disruption; social control theory; social learning theory; positive youth development; library; PYJ Program Medals; and award-winning programs.

    Webinar
  • Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015

    Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015 Cover
    Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015

    This is a great example of the specified ingredients for various types of kosher meals. This document contain sections covering; religious certification requirements for meals by accepted Orthodox kosher certification agencies; general meal specifications; and the exact diet specifications for 14 meals and 22 kosher items.

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  • Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems

    Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems Cover
    Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems

    Prevention and intervention services (mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) provided to children and juveniles are inventoried. These programs are primarily evidence-based and research-based and offered in a culturally competent way. "The definitions developed for evidence-based and research-based are high standards of rigor and represent programs that demonstrate effectiveness at achieving certain outcomes … To assemble the inventory, we operationalize each criterion for both the current law definitions for children as well as the suggested definitions of evidence-based and research-based … [In addition] the WSIPP benefit-cost model is used to determine whether a program meets the benefit-cost criterion by testing the probability that benefits exceed costs. Programs that do not achieve at least a 75% chance of a positive net present value do not meet the benefit-cost test" (p. 1). The Report explains any changes to the inventory since January 2014. The Inventory shows: budget area—child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, general prevention, and substance abuse; program/intervention; manual; current law definitions—evidence-based, research-based, promising practice; suggested definitions—evidence-based, research-based, and promising practice; cost-beneficial; reason practice does not meet suggested evidence-based criteria—benefit-cost, heterogeneity, mixed results, program cost, single evaluation, and weight of evidence; and percent minority.

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  • CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings

    CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings Cover
    CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings

    "This survey asked if probation was an executive or judicial branch function for adult and juvenile cases. Forty-five states and the District of Columbia indicated that juvenile probation is a function of the judicial branch." This collection is comprised of three documents: "Branch Responsible for Probation"—whether probation is a function of Executive, Judicial, or a variation; "Level of Government Responsible for Probation"--whether probation operates at the state- or county-level; and "Relationship Between Court and Probation"—whether local trial court and local probation or community corrections agency work together as institutions or work independently depending on the judge's inclinations. Aggregate results for each responding state are provided for juvenile cases, adult misdemeanor cases, and adult felony cases. This data is clearly compared through bar charts.

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  • Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar]

    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar] Cover
    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar]

    "Children in far too many states are forced to appear in court shackled – often wearing handcuffs, leg irons, and belly chains connecting ankle and hand restraints … In this [excellent] webinar, co-sponsored by the Coalition for Juvenile Justice, presenters David Shapiro of the Campaign Against Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling and George Yeannakis of the Washington State Office of Public Defense and NJJN member TeamChild, discussed the practical, policy, and constitutional reasons to reform universal shackling practices and successful strategies for reforming shackling policies." You can get the following resources at this website: policy update "Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court"; a recording of the entire webinar; PowerPoint presentation; and "GR 9 COVER SHEET Suggested Amendment JUVENILE COURT RULES JuCR 1.6 – Physical Restraints in the Courtroom".

    Webinar
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence

    Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence Cover
    Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence

    "Although advocates and critics have made numerous claims regarding body-worn cameras, there have been few balanced discussions of the benefits and problems associated with the technology and even fewer discussions of the empirical evidence supporting or refuting those claims. This publication provides a review of the available evidence on officer body-worn cameras. The goal is to provide a comprehensive resource that will help law enforcement agencies to understand the factors they should consider to make informed decisions regarding the adoption of body-worn camera technology" (p. 5). These sections follow an executive summary: introduction; resources and research reviewed; the perceived benefits of officer body-worn cameras; concerns and considerations regarding body-worn cameras; and conclusion and recommendations. An appendix provides a "Body-Worn Camera Policy Template".

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  • Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs: Findings and Recommendations

    Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs: Findings and Recommendations cover
    Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs: Findings and Recommendations

    "This study evaluates two of Allegheny County (PA)’s programs to improve the successful reintegration of jail inmates following their return to the community. Both programs were designed to reduce re-offending through the use of risk/needs assessment, coordinated reentry planning, and the use of evidence-based programs and practices." Six sections follow an executive summary: introduction; study design; fidelity assessment findings and implications; impact evaluation analysis and findings; summary of findings; and recommendations and action steps. "There is strong and credible evidence that Allegheny County’s Second Chance Act reentry programs reduce recidivism as measured by rearrest. Findings of program impact are coupled with ample evidence of strong program implementation fidelity and adherence to principles of effective intervention for criminal justice populations" (p. ix).

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  • The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention

    The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention Cover
    The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention

    "The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the community, the need for defendants to appear in court, and upholding the legal and constitutional rights afforded to accused persons awaiting trial. It carries enormous consequences not only for the defendant but also for the safety of the community … Using data from the Commonwealth of Kentucky, this research investigates the impact of pretrial detention on 1) pretrial outcomes (failure to appear and arrest for new criminal activity); and 2) post-disposition recidivism" (p. 3). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; sample description; research objective one—investigate the relationship between length of pretrial detention and pretrial outcome; and research objective two—investigate the relationship between pretrial detention, as well as the length of pretrial detention, and new criminal activity post-disposition (NCA-PD). There appears to a direct link between how long low- and moderate-risk defendants are in pretrial detention and the chances that they will commit new crimes.

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  • A New Life Behind Bars: A Prison Retrofit

    A New Life Behind Bars: A Prison Retrofit Cover
    A New Life Behind Bars: A Prison Retrofit

    This innovatively designed report is an excellent examination of how a prison could become more sustainable and save costs. "Institutional establishments with long-term residents, such as prisons, which use a significant amount of resources can reduce their energy, food and water costs by using sustainable practices. These practices can help reduce the costs of prisoner housing and eventually lower costs to tax payers. This project focuses on a hypothetical retrofit of the Wilmot Department of Corrections (Wilmot D.O.C.) prison facility in Tucson, AZ." Sections of this report include: introduction; literature review—solar power, wastewater management, on site food production, and rehabilitation; case studies—Colorado Correctional Industries, ASPC Lewis, Sidwell Friends Middle School, New Orleans Parish, Disney's Living With the Land, Sustainable Prisons Project; site analysis; design—layout, greenhouses, constructed wetlands, composting fields, and workshops; and conclusions.

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  • A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws

    A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws Cover
    A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws

    "State legislatures consider and enact laws that address all aspects of pretrial policy, including release eligibility, conditions of release, bail, commercial bail bonding and pretrial diversion. These legislative policies have an important role in providing fair, efficient and safe pretrial practices carried out by law enforcement and the courts" (p. 1). Brief descriptions are provided for the following legislative: citation in lieu of arrest; pretrial release eligibility; guidance for setting release conditions; pretrial release conditions; pretrial detention; bail bond agent licensure; bail bond agent business practices; bail forfeiture procedures; recovery agents (aka bounty hunters); victims' rights and protections; and pretrial diversion.

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  • PREA Juvenile Offender Orientation for Newly Committed Juvenile Offenders

    › PREA Juvenile Offender Orientation for Newly Committed Juvenile Offenders Cover
    PREA Juvenile Offender Orientation for Newly Committed Juvenile Offenders

    This document is an excellent introduction for youth about the prevention of sexual abuse while they are incarcerated. "The Kansas Juvenile Justice Authority (JJA) is committed to your safety and the safety of staff. You have the right to serve your sentence with dignity and free from sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and retaliation. The JJA has zero tolerance regarding sexual abuse and sexual harassment within its facilities. This means we DO NOT tolerate any level of sexual harassment, misconduct, or assault in the facilities. EVERY effort will be made to prevent sexual abuse and harassment from occurring, EVERY allegation will be investigated, EVERY perpetrator punished, and EVERY victim offered services" (p. 1). Sections cover: what sexual abuse is; prevention; reporting and investigations; what to expect during an investigation; and some final thoughts on zero tolerance and safety.

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  • Correctional Facilities as Partners in Reducing HIV Disparities

    Correctional Facilities as Partners in Reducing HIV Disparities Cover
    Correctional Facilities as Partners in Reducing HIV Disparities

    "The U.S. now has the highest incarceration rate in the world. The majority of prison and jail inmates come from predominantly nonwhite and medically underserved communities. Although incarceration has adverse effects on both individual and community health, prisons and jails have also been used successfully as venues to provide health services to people with HIV who frequently lack stable health care. We review demographic trends shaping the difficulties in providing care to incarcerated people with HIV, and recommend the Centers for AIDS Research Collaboration on HIV in Corrections (CFAR-CHIC) as a model of interdisciplinary collaboration in addressing those difficulties." This article examines: racial and ethnic disparities; women and adolescents; aging prisoners; comorbidities; linkage to care; and the Centers for AIDS Research Collaboration on HIV in Corrections (CFAR-CHIC).

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  • Oregon Sustainability 2013

    Oregon Sustainability 2013 Cover
    Oregon Sustainability 2013

    "The Oregon Department of Corrections (DOC) is committed to sustainable operations to protect our natural environment and improve quality of life for healthier communities. Sustainable practices will protect our environment, save taxpayer money, and model positive practices to the adults in DOC" (p. 3). This publication illustrates how the Oregon DOC is working on increasing its sustainable operations. Topics covered include: the creation of a sustainable system; field mowing program; Sustainability in Prisons Project (SPP); solar hot water; recycling; EarthWISE certification; animal rehabilitation; fuel efficiency; community involvement; LED lighting; geothermal and alternative energy efficiency; utility tracking; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduction; organic gardening and composting; Canine Companions for Independence (CCI); eco-roof; Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP)—"buying green"; Oregon Accountability Model (OAM); conservation; and greenhouse ecology.

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  • Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness

    › Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness Cover
    Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness

    "In 1992, the Florida Department of Corrections began its efforts to identify the levels of gang activity within its inmate/offender population. Although we had not realized a significant number of disruptive incidents were attributed to gang activity, national trends and an increase in the intake of younger inmates prompted the Security Threat Group (STG) management initiative. The result is the comprehensive intelligence gathering program that has literally given us a "blueprint" of gang activity in Florida. The Security Threat Intelligence Unit (STIU) is now recognized as a national leader in STG identification, assessment and management. Although our primary focus is on inmates and offenders, we are committed to sharing what we learn with criminal justice agencies and the public." Access is provided to: gang basics; F.A.Q.; Chicago based; Nation Sets; L.A. based; prison gangs; Florida gangs; supremacy groups; awareness strategies; and links to additional resources.

    Web Page
  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-30, 2014

    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-30, 2014 Cover
    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-30, 2014

    Sections of these proceedings are: about this meeting; "Legal Issues in Today's Jails: Avoiding Civil Liability" by Carrie Hill; "Domestic Threats to Jail Security:" "Part 1. Countering Prisoner Radicalization in the Federal Bureau of Prisons" by Jeff Woodworth; "Part 2. Sovereign Citizens" by Steve Cope; "Prison Rape Elimination Act – Lessons Learned from Early Audits:" "Part 1. PREA: The Riverside Regional Jail Authority Experience" by Jeffery Newton; "Part 2. Surviving the PREA Audit" by Marilyn Chandler Ford; "Health Care Reform + Inmate Medical Care = Reduced Costs?" "Part 1. Affordable Care Act: Continuity of Care" by Richelle Arhalt; "Part 2. Affordable Care Act: Innovative Approaches" by Raul Benasco; "Part 3. Curbing the Rising Cost of Healthcare" by Mark Bolton; "Mental Health Models that Work:" "Part 1. Restoration of Competency Program" by Gregory Garland; "Part 2. Mental Health Treatment" by Christopher Kneisley; "Part 3. Mental Health Management Unit" by Jared Schecter; "Part 4. Mental Health Treatment and Community Re-Entry" by Don Pinkard; "Jail Leader Longevity in Office: Achieving and Sustaining Success in Jail Leadership" by Patrick Tighe; Open Forum; professional association updates; and future meeting topics. An appendix provides "Index of Past LJN Meeting Topics".

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  • A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice

    A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice Cover
    A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice

    "At a national level, minority clients are less likely to access mental and behavioral health services and drop out of treatment more frequently than nonminority counterparts. While this phenomenon is driven by social and economic factors, it is reasonable to assume it also may be due to a lack of adequate training in culturally congruent therapeutic approaches. The Cultural Enhancement Model presented in this paper addresses engagement factors at the community and individual-level in order to overcome barriers to EBP [evidence-based practice] dissemination and program retention." Sections of this toolkit include: introduction—EBP implementation challenges, cultural competence, cultural adaptation framework, and engagement; the Cultural Enhancement Model (CEM)—Family Integrated Transitions (FIT), and five phases in applying the CEM (identify community advisory team, information-gathering, development, implementation, and evaluation); and summary. Appendixes provide an example of a work plan, sample survey, enhancement proposal example, and FIT Latino Enhancement Materials—common conversational Spanish phrases, "Barriers to Discussing Emotions with Latino Clients", "Conversational Spanish as an Engagement Tool", "Key DBT [Dialectical Behavioral Therapy] Terms and Definitions: English to Spanish Translation", "Working with an Interpreter", "DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Discussing Emotions", " DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Distress Tolerance", DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Wise Mind", and "Como se Siente Usted? (How Do You Feel?).

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  • Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story

    Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story Cover
    Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story

    "Over the last few years, Colorado has been working on statewide pretrial justice reform and seen incredible advancements in legislation, policy, and practice. This video chronicles their journey so far in working to establish safe, fair, and effective pretrial justice in the state."

    Video
  • Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action

    Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action Cover
    Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action

    This paper will be of interest to those who are beginning to investigate the benefits of institutional art programming. "This capstone study examines information about the use of art education in Florida prisons. The project’s objectives raise important questions about the role and status of art education in Florida prisons. Additionally, incorporated in the findings is a discussion concerning the need for establishing long-term, publicly funded art education in today’s corrections environment … Conclusions drawn from the research suggest that art programs for incarcerated individuals can help them develop better mental outlooks. Expressive therapy and art education reduces violence within the prison system as well as decreases parolees’ recidivism. This project is a call for art educators to break into prison, taking their creative inspiration and expressive therapy strategies to incarcerated men and women. Without such efforts, few art programs will ever be offered in state prisons" (p. 8-9). Sections of this paper include: purpose of the study; prison education overview; art education in prisons; cost benefits; art educators working with prisoners; personal experience; what makes for a strong prison art education program; hindrances to establishing ongoing programming; lingering questions; and summary. A list of websites about current art programs and prison art and education is also included.

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  • Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction

    Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction Cover
    Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction

    "Claims of inadequate health care and safety afforded to transgender inmates have become the subject of litigation. This article reviews 129 unsolicited letters from transgender inmates writing … to identify their concerns. Among the letters reviewed were reports from 10 inmates who had filed lawsuits naming departments of correction (DOCs) as defendants, claiming inadequate access to transgender health care. Five of these lawsuits have gone to trial. In all of those cases, the defendant settled the matter or was found liable as of the time of this report. Claims of inadequate care for transgendered patients that have sufficient merit to be fully litigated in U.S. courts appear likely to produce verdicts in favor of plaintiff inmates. The information gleaned from reviewing letters from transgendered inmates may alert staffs of DOCs to concerns worth addressing proactively to avoid the costs associated with transgender-related lawsuits" (Author Abstract p. 334).

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