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  • Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview

    Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview Cover
    Assessing Pretrial Risk without a Defendant Interview

    "Although the use of pretrial risk assessments has increased in recent years, the proportion of jurisdictions employing these instruments remains low, and is estimated to be no more than 10%. This low adoption rate is due in large part to the fact that existing risk assessments require that information be collected through interviews with defendants. Conducting these interviews and verifying the information is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process that many jurisdictions cannot afford" (p. 3). There were only eight multi-jurisdictional pretrial risk-assessments being used in 2012, all of which depended on defendant interviews. The foundation for an effective non-interview-based risk assessment was the Kentucky Pretrial Risk Assessment (KPRA), an objective instrument comprised of 12 risk factors, some of which were interview-based. The validated assessment was the KPRA-S, a seven risk factor assessment. The KPRA-S was found to accurately determine low-, moderate-, and high-risk defendants. The assessment was also found to predict those individuals prone to fail to appear (FTA) or commit new criminal activity (NCA) as well as the KPRA.

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  • Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities

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    Holidays Are Dangerous Times Within Correctional Facilities

    This is essential reading for anyone working within a correctional setting. "In today’s world, criminal justice personnel not only have the “Dangers and Challenges” that are normally associated with the “Holidays”, they now have to factor in the possibility of terrorist activities directed at them and their facilities" (p. 1). Sections offer clear explanations for the following crucial preparations: correctional law enforcement and court facilities should be extra vigilant at the perimeters of their facilities; correctional facilities need to be extra cautious during visiting hours throughout the "Holiday Season"; law enforcement and sheriff’s patrol units need to be extremely attentive to their surroundings by increasing their own "situational awareness"; and offender security issues.

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  • Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation

    Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation Cover
    Toward Evidence-Based Decision Making in Community Corrections: Research and Strategies for Successful Implementation

    This publication "contains invited articles on community corrections, with special emphasis on successful implementation strategies. A common thread that runs through these articles relates to what is needed to better ensure fidelity to evidence-based practices in community supervision and treatment. The research and implementation strategies shared by the authors should provide greater guidance to agency and program administrators working to assimilate evidence-based practices into their organizations" (p. 1). Articles include: "Current Practice and Challenges in Evidence-Based Community Corrections" by Stephen M. Haas; "STICS: From Pilot Project to Wide-Scale Implementation" - review; "Motivational Interviewing Proficiency in Corrections" – review; "Ohio Youth Assessment System – Creation, Validation, and Implementation" – review; "Actuarial Risk/Need Assessment and Its Effect on Supervision Revocation" – review; and "Establishing the Proper Risk-Dosage Relationship" – review. Each review explains: why the study was done; what the program was and what the researchers did; what the researchers found; and what the implications are of the study for policy making. Also included are two review essays. "Review Essay: Implementing EBP in Community Corrections" discusses what works, EBP models, planned change, and dosage. "Review Essay: Moving Implementation of EBP Forward" looks at three challenges to implementing EBPs in community corrections programming.

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  • Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation

    Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation Cover
    Why Did the U.S. Lock Up these Women with Men? A Fusion Investigation

    "The United States has long been a haven for those fleeing persecution and oppression. But today, the treatment for asylum seekers can be so terrible that some are asking to be sent back to the very countries they were escaping. This includes women who are locked up alongside men, sometimes the very men they were trying to escape … This is life for transgender women in U.S. immigration detention facilities … A six-month Fusion investigation found that conditions for transgender women locked up by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are often humiliating, dangerous, and even deadly … What makes ICE detainees different from prisoners is that they aren’t behind bars serving criminal sentences. Rather, they are locked up, waiting to see a judge who will decide whether or not they’ll be deported. A growing number of state and federal prisons across the country allow for transgender individuals to be housed based on their gender identity, regardless of their genitalia or sex at birth." Some of the sobering facts about transgender people under ICE detention are: on average, 75 transgender detainees are locked up each night—10% transgender men and 90% transgender women; of every 500 individuals, 1 detainee is transgender; of every 5 victims of confirmed sexual abuse, 1 victim is transgender. This report discusses: the housing of transgender detainees—transgender women not being housed with the female population; targets for prison rape during ICE detention; the detention-bed mandate of 2009; denial of needed medication; and alternative to detention.

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  • SMART: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking

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    SMART: Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking

    Looking for a portal to a wealth of information about sex offending and sex offender management? Then this website is a must. It is home to the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART). "The SMART Office was authorized in the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006, which was signed into law on July 27, 2006. The responsibilities of the SMART Office include providing jurisdictions with guidance regarding the implementation of the Adam Walsh Act, and providing technical assistance to the states, territories, Indian tribes, local governments, and to public and private organizations. The SMART Office also tracks important legislative and legal developments related to sex offenders and administers grant programs related to the registration, notification, and management of sex offenders." Access is provided to: about SMART; SORNA (Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act); Indian Country; legislative history; case law updates; funding opportunities; National Symposium; tools and resources—SORNA tools, education and prevention, newsletters and publications, press releases, and links; newsroom; and the National Sex Offender Public Website (NSOPW).

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  • Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative

    Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative Cover
    Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative

    <p>Those people looking for a primer on what is currently known about sex offending and sex offender management need to read this report. "Perpetrators of sex crimes are often seen as needing special management practices. As a result, jurisdictions across the country have implemented laws and policies that focus specifically on sex offenders, often with extensive public support. At the same time, the criminal justice community has increasingly recognized that crime control and prevention strategies—including those targeting sex offenders—are far more likely to work when they are based on scientific evidence. Recognizing the important role scientific evidence plays, the SMART Office developed the Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative (SOMAPI), a project designed to assess the state of research and practice in sex offender management. Recommendations stemming from SOMAPI informed this report" (p. 1). This report is divided into two sections following a very thorough executive summary. Adult Section: incidence and prevalence of sexual offending; etiology of adult sexual offending; sex offender typologies; internet-facilitated sexual offending; adult sex offender recidivism; sex offender risk assessment; effectiveness of treatment of adult sex offenders; and sex offender management strategies. Juvenile Section: unique considerations regarding juveniles who commit sexual offenses; etiology and typologies; recidivism of juveniles who commit sexual offenses; assessment of risk for sexual reoffense; effectiveness of treatment; and registration and notification of juveniles who commit sexual offenses.</p>

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  • Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update Cover
    Perils of Registering Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    "Despite being among the most widely used law enforcement tools in the U.S., registries and notification laws for people who commit sex offenses offer no clear public safety benefits—only a false sense of security. This makes it especially troubling that we subject youth to their many restrictions, which can have crippling consequences that last a lifetime. Though registration is not an effective way to reduce sex offending among adults and youth alike, it is an especially inappropriate response to youth, who are highly unlikely to become repeat sex offenders" (p. 1). Sections explain: registration and notification offer no clear public safety benefits; creating and maintaining registries is expensive; and registration harms youth and their families—registration causes psychological harm, prevents youth from participating in school and work, negatively impacts the families of youth who offend, and places youth at risk of victimization.

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  • Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update Cover
    Youth Who Commit Sex Offenses: Research Update

    "Popular policy responses to youth who commit sex offenses, like listing them on sex offender registries, are largely based on misconceptions about why youth commit such offenses and how best to address their behavior. In fact, registries required by laws like the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) not only fail to protect child welfare and overall public safety, but actually jeopardize it, while taking an enormous toll on the youth who have offended. Fortunately, new research sheds light on why youth commit sex offenses and how to achieve the best outcomes for those they have harmed, the public, and the youth themselves" (p. 1). Sections explain: youth who commit sex offenses are still young people in development; most youth who commit sex offenses will never recidivate—the recidivism rate is 4%; youth who commit sex offense are not a special group; and youth who commit sex offenses respond well to treatment.

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  • Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout

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    Think Before You Act: A New Approach to Preventing Youth Violence and Dropout

    This paper offers an innovative way to reduce the incarceration of juveniles in the United Sates based on randomized controlled trials in Chicago which showed a reduction in arrests for violent crime by an average of 40% with benefits to the community of almost 30 times the program's costs. "Improving the long-term life outcomes of disadvantaged youths remains a top policy priority in the United States. Unfortunately, long-term progress in improving outcomes like high school graduation rates and reduction of violent crime has been limited, partly because finding ways to successfully improve outcomes for disadvantaged youths (particularly males) has proven to be challenging. We believe one reason so many previous strategies have failed is because they at least implicitly assume that young people are forward-looking and consider the long-term consequences of their actions before they act. But a growing body of research in psychology and behavioral economics suggests that a great deal of everyone’s behavior happens intuitively and automatically, with little deliberate thought. Although it is often helpful for us to rely on automatic responses to guide our daily behavior, doing so can also get us into trouble, with consequences that are particularly severe for young people growing up in distressed urban areas where gangs, drugs, and guns are prevalent. We thus propose that the federal government aim to provide each teenager living in poverty in the United States with one year of behaviorally informed programming, intended to help youths recognize high-stakes situations when their automatic responses may be maladaptive" (p. 1).

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  • Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States

    Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States Cover
    Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States

    "Crime and high rates of incarceration impose tremendous costs on society, with lasting negative effects on individuals, families, and communities. Rates of crime in the United States have been falling steadily, but still constitute a serious economic and social challenge. At the same time, the incarceration rate in the United States is so high—more than 700 out of every 100,000 people are incarcerated—that both crime scholars and policymakers alike question whether, for nonviolent criminals in particular, the social costs of incarceration exceed the social benefits … Despite the ongoing decline in crime, the incarceration rate in the United States remains at a historically unprecedented level. This high incarceration rate can have profound effects on society" and is extremely expensive for state and federal agencies (p. 1). This policy memo provides a clear and concise explanation of the impacts of incarceration on communities in the United States. The ten facts are organized into three chapters: the landscape of crime in the U.S.—offenders and victims; the extraordinary growth of mass incarceration in the U.S.; and the economic and social costs of crime and incarceration. Some of these facts include: the majority of criminal offenders are younger than age thirty; federal and state policies have driven up the incarceration rate over the past thirty years; and per capita expenditures on corrections more than tripled over the same time period.

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  • On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration

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    On Life Support: Public Health in the Age of Mass Incarceration

    This report is an excellent introduction to the relationship between incarceration and public health and its significance for society. It is essential reading for anyone working within the fields of corrections and public health. Sections cover: the burden of disease behind bars—mental health, substance use and addiction, infectious disease, chronic disease, violence and self-harm, greater health disparities for women, and geriatric health; conditions of confinement and health—overcrowding, solitary confinement, sexual victimization, and quality of care; the health of communities--family structure, education and employment opportunities, housing stability and social entitlements, health insurance, and political capital; a political landscape ripe for reform; and the potential of the Affordable Care Act (ACA)—bolstering community capacity, strengthening front-end alternatives to arrest, prosecution, and incarceration, bridging health and justice systems, enabling outreach and care coordination, enrolling across the criminal justice continuum, granting Medicaid waivers and innovation, advancing health information technology, and regional challenges with the ACA.

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  • Positive Youth Justice Website

    Positive Youth Justice Website Cover
    Positive Youth Justice Website

    This website "is designed to support and promote youth justice programs that are informed by the science of adolescent development. Despite the obvious relevance of developmental science for the design and operation of youth justice programs, these concepts are not yet the dominant framework for interventions in youth justice. One way to increase the efficacy of youth justice would be to build programs and policies using the Positive Youth Justice Model (PYJ), which is a practical guide for applying developmental principles in justice settings … The Positive Youth Justice website is designed to explain and disseminate the concepts and strategies suggested by the PYJ Model." Points of access include: overview; background; changing the frame; disruption; social control theory; social learning theory; positive youth development; library; PYJ Program Medals; and award-winning programs.

    Webinar
  • NDTAC Fact Sheet: Improving Services for Youth Who Are LGBT in Juvenile Justice Systems

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    NDTAC Fact Sheet: Improving Services for Youth Who Are LGBT in Juvenile Justice Systems

    To promote the safe, inclusive treatment of youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) in juvenile justice systems, this fact sheet serves as a resource to enhance the capacity of State and local administrators and practitioners to improve policies and practices (p. 1). Sections of this fact sheet include: key concepts; experiences of youth who are LGBT; juvenile justice involvement among youth who are LGBT—a snapshot; entry of these youth into the juvenile justice system; juvenile justice system experiences of these youth; policy and practice recommendations; additional resources; and conclusion.

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  • Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015

    Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015 Cover
    Certified Religious Diet Specifications Quote Sheet – FY 2015

    This is a great example of the specified ingredients for various types of kosher meals. This document contain sections covering; religious certification requirements for meals by accepted Orthodox kosher certification agencies; general meal specifications; and the exact diet specifications for 14 meals and 22 kosher items.

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  • Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems

    Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems Cover
    Updated Inventory of Evidence-Based, Research-Based, and Promising Practices for Prevention and Intervention Services For Children and Juveniles in the Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, and Mental Health Systems

    Prevention and intervention services (mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice) provided to children and juveniles are inventoried. These programs are primarily evidence-based and research-based and offered in a culturally competent way. "The definitions developed for evidence-based and research-based are high standards of rigor and represent programs that demonstrate effectiveness at achieving certain outcomes … To assemble the inventory, we operationalize each criterion for both the current law definitions for children as well as the suggested definitions of evidence-based and research-based … [In addition] the WSIPP benefit-cost model is used to determine whether a program meets the benefit-cost criterion by testing the probability that benefits exceed costs. Programs that do not achieve at least a 75% chance of a positive net present value do not meet the benefit-cost test" (p. 1). The Report explains any changes to the inventory since January 2014. The Inventory shows: budget area—child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, general prevention, and substance abuse; program/intervention; manual; current law definitions—evidence-based, research-based, promising practice; suggested definitions—evidence-based, research-based, and promising practice; cost-beneficial; reason practice does not meet suggested evidence-based criteria—benefit-cost, heterogeneity, mixed results, program cost, single evaluation, and weight of evidence; and percent minority.

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  • CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings

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    CCJ and COSCA Survey of Evidence-Based Practices in Sentencing & Probation Findings

    "This survey asked if probation was an executive or judicial branch function for adult and juvenile cases. Forty-five states and the District of Columbia indicated that juvenile probation is a function of the judicial branch." This collection is comprised of three documents: "Branch Responsible for Probation"—whether probation is a function of Executive, Judicial, or a variation; "Level of Government Responsible for Probation"--whether probation operates at the state- or county-level; and "Relationship Between Court and Probation"—whether local trial court and local probation or community corrections agency work together as institutions or work independently depending on the judge's inclinations. Aggregate results for each responding state are provided for juvenile cases, adult misdemeanor cases, and adult felony cases. This data is clearly compared through bar charts.

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  • Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar]

    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar] Cover
    Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to Stop Shackling Children in Court [Webinar]

    "Children in far too many states are forced to appear in court shackled – often wearing handcuffs, leg irons, and belly chains connecting ankle and hand restraints … In this [excellent] webinar, co-sponsored by the Coalition for Juvenile Justice, presenters David Shapiro of the Campaign Against Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling and George Yeannakis of the Washington State Office of Public Defense and NJJN member TeamChild, discussed the practical, policy, and constitutional reasons to reform universal shackling practices and successful strategies for reforming shackling policies." You can get the following resources at this website: policy update "Unchain the Children: Policy Opportunities to End the Shackling of Youth in Court"; a recording of the entire webinar; PowerPoint presentation; and "GR 9 COVER SHEET Suggested Amendment JUVENILE COURT RULES JuCR 1.6 – Physical Restraints in the Courtroom".

    Webinar
  • Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence

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    Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence

    "Although advocates and critics have made numerous claims regarding body-worn cameras, there have been few balanced discussions of the benefits and problems associated with the technology and even fewer discussions of the empirical evidence supporting or refuting those claims. This publication provides a review of the available evidence on officer body-worn cameras. The goal is to provide a comprehensive resource that will help law enforcement agencies to understand the factors they should consider to make informed decisions regarding the adoption of body-worn camera technology" (p. 5). These sections follow an executive summary: introduction; resources and research reviewed; the perceived benefits of officer body-worn cameras; concerns and considerations regarding body-worn cameras; and conclusion and recommendations. An appendix provides a "Body-Worn Camera Policy Template".

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  • Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs: Findings and Recommendations

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    Evaluation of the Allegheny County Jail Collaborative Reentry Programs: Findings and Recommendations

    "This study evaluates two of Allegheny County (PA)’s programs to improve the successful reintegration of jail inmates following their return to the community. Both programs were designed to reduce re-offending through the use of risk/needs assessment, coordinated reentry planning, and the use of evidence-based programs and practices." Six sections follow an executive summary: introduction; study design; fidelity assessment findings and implications; impact evaluation analysis and findings; summary of findings; and recommendations and action steps. "There is strong and credible evidence that Allegheny County’s Second Chance Act reentry programs reduce recidivism as measured by rearrest. Findings of program impact are coupled with ample evidence of strong program implementation fidelity and adherence to principles of effective intervention for criminal justice populations" (p. ix).

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  • The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention

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    The Hidden Costs of Pretrial Detention

    "The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the community, the need for defendants to appear in court, and upholding the legal and constitutional rights afforded to accused persons awaiting trial. It carries enormous consequences not only for the defendant but also for the safety of the community … Using data from the Commonwealth of Kentucky, this research investigates the impact of pretrial detention on 1) pretrial outcomes (failure to appear and arrest for new criminal activity); and 2) post-disposition recidivism" (p. 3). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; sample description; research objective one—investigate the relationship between length of pretrial detention and pretrial outcome; and research objective two—investigate the relationship between pretrial detention, as well as the length of pretrial detention, and new criminal activity post-disposition (NCA-PD). There appears to a direct link between how long low- and moderate-risk defendants are in pretrial detention and the chances that they will commit new crimes.

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  • A New Life Behind Bars: A Prison Retrofit

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    A New Life Behind Bars: A Prison Retrofit

    This innovatively designed report is an excellent examination of how a prison could become more sustainable and save costs. "Institutional establishments with long-term residents, such as prisons, which use a significant amount of resources can reduce their energy, food and water costs by using sustainable practices. These practices can help reduce the costs of prisoner housing and eventually lower costs to tax payers. This project focuses on a hypothetical retrofit of the Wilmot Department of Corrections (Wilmot D.O.C.) prison facility in Tucson, AZ." Sections of this report include: introduction; literature review—solar power, wastewater management, on site food production, and rehabilitation; case studies—Colorado Correctional Industries, ASPC Lewis, Sidwell Friends Middle School, New Orleans Parish, Disney's Living With the Land, Sustainable Prisons Project; site analysis; design—layout, greenhouses, constructed wetlands, composting fields, and workshops; and conclusions.

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  • Co-occurring Disorders Among Youth in Juvenile Justice

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    Co-occurring Disorders Among Youth in Juvenile Justice

    "Individuals with co-occurring disorders experience substance use and another mental health disorder simultaneously. The conditions may precipitate or exacerbate one another, or they may exist independently … In youth with co-occurring disorders, the complexity of this interaction is heightened. Unique combinations of symptom patterns and behaviors can prevent youth from functioning adequately. Furthermore, co-occurring disorders in youth can impact brain development, making sustained recovery even more difficult … Overcoming these challenges can be particularly difficult for youth involved in the juvenile justice system, who often have little access to appropriate services and support." This website provides an excellent resource regarding issues related to justice-involved juveniles with co-occurring disorders. Sections of this website cover: prevalence of disorders among youth in the juvenile justice system; poor outcomes linked to co-occurring disorders; identification—screening (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument Version 2 (MAYSI-2), and Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GAIN-SS)), and assessment (Practical Adolescent Dual Diagnostic Interview-5 (PADDI-5), Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), and World Mental Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI)); treatment—history, effective treatment, integrated co-occurring treatment (ICT) model, multisystemic therapy (MST) for juvenile offenders, and family integrated transitions (FIT); addressing youth with co-occurring disorders in court—advancing juvenile treatment courts—developing effective policies, new directions, and providing effective treatment; key websites; and critical resources.

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  • A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws

    A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws Cover
    A Brief Overview of Pretrial Release Laws

    "State legislatures consider and enact laws that address all aspects of pretrial policy, including release eligibility, conditions of release, bail, commercial bail bonding and pretrial diversion. These legislative policies have an important role in providing fair, efficient and safe pretrial practices carried out by law enforcement and the courts" (p. 1). Brief descriptions are provided for the following legislative: citation in lieu of arrest; pretrial release eligibility; guidance for setting release conditions; pretrial release conditions; pretrial detention; bail bond agent licensure; bail bond agent business practices; bail forfeiture procedures; recovery agents (aka bounty hunters); victims' rights and protections; and pretrial diversion.

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  • PREA Juvenile Offender Orientation for Newly Committed Juvenile Offenders

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    PREA Juvenile Offender Orientation for Newly Committed Juvenile Offenders

    This document is an excellent introduction for youth about the prevention of sexual abuse while they are incarcerated. "The Kansas Juvenile Justice Authority (JJA) is committed to your safety and the safety of staff. You have the right to serve your sentence with dignity and free from sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and retaliation. The JJA has zero tolerance regarding sexual abuse and sexual harassment within its facilities. This means we DO NOT tolerate any level of sexual harassment, misconduct, or assault in the facilities. EVERY effort will be made to prevent sexual abuse and harassment from occurring, EVERY allegation will be investigated, EVERY perpetrator punished, and EVERY victim offered services" (p. 1). Sections cover: what sexual abuse is; prevention; reporting and investigations; what to expect during an investigation; and some final thoughts on zero tolerance and safety.

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  • Correctional Facilities as Partners in Reducing HIV Disparities

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    Correctional Facilities as Partners in Reducing HIV Disparities

    "The U.S. now has the highest incarceration rate in the world. The majority of prison and jail inmates come from predominantly nonwhite and medically underserved communities. Although incarceration has adverse effects on both individual and community health, prisons and jails have also been used successfully as venues to provide health services to people with HIV who frequently lack stable health care. We review demographic trends shaping the difficulties in providing care to incarcerated people with HIV, and recommend the Centers for AIDS Research Collaboration on HIV in Corrections (CFAR-CHIC) as a model of interdisciplinary collaboration in addressing those difficulties." This article examines: racial and ethnic disparities; women and adolescents; aging prisoners; comorbidities; linkage to care; and the Centers for AIDS Research Collaboration on HIV in Corrections (CFAR-CHIC).

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  • Oregon Sustainability 2013

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    Oregon Sustainability 2013

    "The Oregon Department of Corrections (DOC) is committed to sustainable operations to protect our natural environment and improve quality of life for healthier communities. Sustainable practices will protect our environment, save taxpayer money, and model positive practices to the adults in DOC" (p. 3). This publication illustrates how the Oregon DOC is working on increasing its sustainable operations. Topics covered include: the creation of a sustainable system; field mowing program; Sustainability in Prisons Project (SPP); solar hot water; recycling; EarthWISE certification; animal rehabilitation; fuel efficiency; community involvement; LED lighting; geothermal and alternative energy efficiency; utility tracking; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduction; organic gardening and composting; Canine Companions for Independence (CCI); eco-roof; Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP)—"buying green"; Oregon Accountability Model (OAM); conservation; and greenhouse ecology.

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  • Mental Health Screening in Juvenile Justice Settings

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    Mental Health Screening in Juvenile Justice Settings

    "The majority of youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system have a diagnosable mental or substance use disorder. In fact, many youth are experiencing both. Combinations of mental illness and substance use are often referred to as either behavioral health problems or co-occurring issues. One of the most important steps in responding to the behavioral health treatment needs of youth in the juvenile justice system is to systematically identify these needs as youth become involved with the system. The development of sound screening and assessment capacity is critical to effectively identify and ultimately respond to mental illness and substance use disorders. With the development over the last 10-15 years of easy-to-use screening tools, many designed to be used by non-clinical staff, the field has taken a major step forward in responding to the behavioral health needs of youth in the system." This website provides an overview of screening and an excellent guide describing a four phases, ten-step process. Each step includes three categories (if available)-websites, examples from the field, and critical resources. Phases include: Phase I Setting the Framework—review needs and options, review resources and demand, and engage stakeholders; Phase II Selecting the Screening Tool—selecting the screening method and procedure; Step III Implementing Screening—develop decision rules and response policies, assemble response resources, develop information-sharing policies, and pilot and train; and Phase IV Maintaining and Evaluating the Screening Process—create a database, and monitor and maintain the screening program.

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  • Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness

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    Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness

    "In 1992, the Florida Department of Corrections began its efforts to identify the levels of gang activity within its inmate/offender population. Although we had not realized a significant number of disruptive incidents were attributed to gang activity, national trends and an increase in the intake of younger inmates prompted the Security Threat Group (STG) management initiative. The result is the comprehensive intelligence gathering program that has literally given us a "blueprint" of gang activity in Florida. The Security Threat Intelligence Unit (STIU) is now recognized as a national leader in STG identification, assessment and management. Although our primary focus is on inmates and offenders, we are committed to sharing what we learn with criminal justice agencies and the public." Access is provided to: gang basics; F.A.Q.; Chicago based; Nation Sets; L.A. based; prison gangs; Florida gangs; supremacy groups; awareness strategies; and links to additional resources.

    Web Page
  • Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-30, 2014

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    Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting Aurora, Colorado, September 28-30, 2014

    Sections of these proceedings are: about this meeting; "Legal Issues in Today's Jails: Avoiding Civil Liability" by Carrie Hill; "Domestic Threats to Jail Security:" "Part 1. Countering Prisoner Radicalization in the Federal Bureau of Prisons" by Jeff Woodworth; "Part 2. Sovereign Citizens" by Steve Cope; "Prison Rape Elimination Act – Lessons Learned from Early Audits:" "Part 1. PREA: The Riverside Regional Jail Authority Experience" by Jeffery Newton; "Part 2. Surviving the PREA Audit" by Marilyn Chandler Ford; "Health Care Reform + Inmate Medical Care = Reduced Costs?" "Part 1. Affordable Care Act: Continuity of Care" by Richelle Arhalt; "Part 2. Affordable Care Act: Innovative Approaches" by Raul Benasco; "Part 3. Curbing the Rising Cost of Healthcare" by Mark Bolton; "Mental Health Models that Work:" "Part 1. Restoration of Competency Program" by Gregory Garland; "Part 2. Mental Health Treatment" by Christopher Kneisley; "Part 3. Mental Health Management Unit" by Jared Schecter; "Part 4. Mental Health Treatment and Community Re-Entry" by Don Pinkard; "Jail Leader Longevity in Office: Achieving and Sustaining Success in Jail Leadership" by Patrick Tighe; Open Forum; professional association updates; and future meeting topics. An appendix provides "Index of Past LJN Meeting Topics".

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  • A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice

    A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice Cover
    A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice

    "At a national level, minority clients are less likely to access mental and behavioral health services and drop out of treatment more frequently than nonminority counterparts. While this phenomenon is driven by social and economic factors, it is reasonable to assume it also may be due to a lack of adequate training in culturally congruent therapeutic approaches. The Cultural Enhancement Model presented in this paper addresses engagement factors at the community and individual-level in order to overcome barriers to EBP [evidence-based practice] dissemination and program retention." Sections of this toolkit include: introduction—EBP implementation challenges, cultural competence, cultural adaptation framework, and engagement; the Cultural Enhancement Model (CEM)—Family Integrated Transitions (FIT), and five phases in applying the CEM (identify community advisory team, information-gathering, development, implementation, and evaluation); and summary. Appendixes provide an example of a work plan, sample survey, enhancement proposal example, and FIT Latino Enhancement Materials—common conversational Spanish phrases, "Barriers to Discussing Emotions with Latino Clients", "Conversational Spanish as an Engagement Tool", "Key DBT [Dialectical Behavioral Therapy] Terms and Definitions: English to Spanish Translation", "Working with an Interpreter", "DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Discussing Emotions", " DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Distress Tolerance", DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Wise Mind", and "Como se Siente Usted? (How Do You Feel?).

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  • Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story

    Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story Cover
    Pretrial Justice: The Colorado Story

    "Over the last few years, Colorado has been working on statewide pretrial justice reform and seen incredible advancements in legislation, policy, and practice. This video chronicles their journey so far in working to establish safe, fair, and effective pretrial justice in the state."

    Video
  • Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action

    Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action Cover
    Breaking Into Prison: Art Education in Action

    This paper will be of interest to those who are beginning to investigate the benefits of institutional art programming. "This capstone study examines information about the use of art education in Florida prisons. The project’s objectives raise important questions about the role and status of art education in Florida prisons. Additionally, incorporated in the findings is a discussion concerning the need for establishing long-term, publicly funded art education in today’s corrections environment … Conclusions drawn from the research suggest that art programs for incarcerated individuals can help them develop better mental outlooks. Expressive therapy and art education reduces violence within the prison system as well as decreases parolees’ recidivism. This project is a call for art educators to break into prison, taking their creative inspiration and expressive therapy strategies to incarcerated men and women. Without such efforts, few art programs will ever be offered in state prisons" (p. 8-9). Sections of this paper include: purpose of the study; prison education overview; art education in prisons; cost benefits; art educators working with prisoners; personal experience; what makes for a strong prison art education program; hindrances to establishing ongoing programming; lingering questions; and summary. A list of websites about current art programs and prison art and education is also included.

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  • Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction

    Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction Cover
    Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Inmates' Correspondence: Implications for Departments of Correction

    "Claims of inadequate health care and safety afforded to transgender inmates have become the subject of litigation. This article reviews 129 unsolicited letters from transgender inmates writing … to identify their concerns. Among the letters reviewed were reports from 10 inmates who had filed lawsuits naming departments of correction (DOCs) as defendants, claiming inadequate access to transgender health care. Five of these lawsuits have gone to trial. In all of those cases, the defendant settled the matter or was found liable as of the time of this report. Claims of inadequate care for transgendered patients that have sufficient merit to be fully litigated in U.S. courts appear likely to produce verdicts in favor of plaintiff inmates. The information gleaned from reviewing letters from transgendered inmates may alert staffs of DOCs to concerns worth addressing proactively to avoid the costs associated with transgender-related lawsuits" (Author Abstract p. 334).

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  • A Portrait of Boundary Violations: Former Female Employees of Corrections Who Have Established a Relationship With an Inmate

    A Portrait of Boundary Violations: Former Female Employees of Corrections Who Have Established a Relationship With an Inmate Cover
    A Portrait of Boundary Violations: Former Female Employees of Corrections Who Have Established a Relationship With an Inmate

    "The correctional profession struggles to prevent boundary violating behavior by correctional employees with inmates. Examples of boundary violations that have occurred in correctional institutions include aiding an inmate in an escape, providing weapons to inmates, and engaging in sexual contact with an inmate. Any type of boundary violating behavior between an inmate and an employee has the potential of threatening the stability of the institution as well as creating a public safety risk. This study examined the process that permits a female correctional employee to develop a relationship with a male inmate" (p. iv). Five chapters comprise this dissertation: introduction and purpose of this study; literature review covering the environment inside a correctional facility, organizational components, organizational response, boundary violations in mental health treatment settings and in correctional facilities, consequence of boundary violations, strategies to address boundary violations, values and characteristics of employees, women in corrections, love and attraction in the workplace, and women in love with inmates; methodology—origins and purposes, perspective taking, voice, context, relationship, emergent themes, and shaping the story and composing the narrative; the portraits—portraits of four former female correctional officers, emerging themes, and review of research questions; and discussion and conclusions—Boundary Violation Model, and implications for correctional leaders.

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  • Medicaid: Information on Inmate Eligibility and Federal Costs for Allowable Services

    Medicaid: Information on Inmate Eligibility and Federal Costs for Allowable Services Cover
    Medicaid: Information on Inmate Eligibility and Federal Costs for Allowable Services

    "Financing health care for inmates can be a significant portion of state correctional spending for some states with health care costs ranging from an estimated 6 percent to 33 percent of institutional corrections spending in 2008, the most recent estimate available. The combination of expanded Medicaid eligibility and enhanced funding for those newly eligible as allowed under PPACA [Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act] gives states additional incentives to enroll inmates in Medicaid and obtain federal matching funds, and increases the federal responsibility for financing allowable services for inmates. Questions exist about the potential costs to the federal government, because little is known about how many inmates are eligible for Medicaid or the extent to which states are obtaining federal matching funds for allowable services … In this report, we provide information on the proportion of inmates eligible for Medicaid, and state efforts to enroll inmates in Medicaid and obtain federal matching funds for allowable services" (p. 2). While a large percentage of inmates will be eligible for Medicaid in the 27 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility, only a very small percentage will be eligible for federal Medicaid funds. The impact to federal spending will be extremely limited.

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  • CJ-TRAK Knowledge Translation Tool Suite

    CJ-TRAK Knowledge Translation Tool Suite Cover
    CJ-TRAK Knowledge Translation Tool Suite

    "Moving knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) from research into practice in the justice and treatment systems is essential for improving both offender (client-level) and system-level outcomes. The Criminal Justice Targeted Research and Application of Knowledge (CJ-TRAK) website is home to several decision-support tools designed to facilitate knowledge translation in the justice/treatment system for justice-involved populations." The RNR Simulation Tool can be used to figure out what programing is needed by your agency to effectively reduce recidivism. This tool is composed of three portals: Assess an Individual; The RNR Program Tool for Adults; and Assess Jurisdiction's Capacity. SOARING2 is an e-learning program that provides corrections professionals with knowledge and skills they need to use EBP effectively in managing offenders. The training system is comprised of five modules: Risk-Need-Responsivity; Motivation and Engagement; Case Planning; Problem Solving; and Desistance. The final instrument is the Evidence Mapping (EMTAP) Tool. The EMTAP synthesizes meta-analyses and systematic reviews on what works in correctional health services. It "allows users to examine the outcomes, settings, populations studied, and methods at a glance" that match their selected offender area.

    Web Page
  • The Fourth Wave: Juvenile Justice Reforms for the Twenty-First Century

    The Fourth Wave: Juvenile Justice Reforms for the Twenty-First Century Cover
    The Fourth Wave: Juvenile Justice Reforms for the Twenty-First Century

    "Over the past decade or more, virtually every state in the union has taken steps to create a juvenile justice system that is not just tough on crime but smart on crime—fair and just practices that protect communities and help all kids become responsible adults. The systems now taking shape embrace the best ideas from earlier waves of reform—society’s responsibility to its youth, the need to create safe communities—and put them in a new framework: a scientific understanding of child and adolescent development, the tools to evaluate what works and what doesn’t, and the determination to put our scarce taxpayer dollars where the evidence is" (p. 9). This report discusses how the fourth wave of reform will influence the juvenile justice system. Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; a brief history of juvenile justice—the "discovery" of childhood, enter the child savers, a second wave of reform, the third wave of backlash, the consequences, and the fourth wave; reducing incarceration and its harms; treating kids as kids, not as adults; diverting youths from the system; ensuring equal treatment and due process; balancing youth development, personal accountability, and public safety; and into the future.

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  • National Institute of Corrections Report to the Nation FY 2013: Protecting the Promise: Serving America's Correctional Systems

    National Institute of Corrections Report to the Nation FY 2013: Protecting the Promise: Serving America's Correctional Systems Cover
    National Institute of Corrections Report to the Nation FY 2013: Protecting the Promise: Serving America's Correctional Systems

    “We’re in the people business. As much as we like to talk about numbers—rates of recidivism, caseloads, population growth, etc.—the real story behind the work we do is the lives we save, the people we help, and the communities we keep safe. That’s the nature of corrections. In this year’s annual report to the nation from the Nation Institute of Corrections (NIC), we hope that the stories of the lives we’ve touched and the jurisdictions we’ve helped come through. More than just the numbers, it’s the training, information, and technical assistance that we’ve provided throughout the fiscal year that truly matters, because it is those stories and those successes that best illustrate what we do … Make no mistake, however, that while we’re sharing with you our proudest moments, we’ve weathered the same effects of the stormy economy that each of you have. We have been challenged by travel restrictions, training cancellations, and delays and denials of requests for technical assistance due to economic forces. In our Jails Division alone, 11 training events were canceled. But in this adversity, we continue to make a difference and serve the field of corrections. We have enjoyed being of service to the country this fiscal year, and we look forward to being part of more of the positive, inspiring stories in corrections that are still to come." These remarks were made by Robert M. Brown, Jr., Acting Director, National Institute of Corrections (NIC). Chapters of this report focus on: NIC's mission and strategic outcomes; operations; mission-focused training; outreach; evidence-based practices; information services; and technical assistance.

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  • Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure

    Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure Cover
    Improving Recidivism as a Performance Measure

    "Performance measurement—establishing metrics for success and assessing results—is a crucial first step in making informed decisions in all areas of government, including criminal justice policy. Understanding the outcomes of funding and policy decisions is critical to improving government performance and providing the best return on taxpayer investments … Recidivism, the most commonly used definition of correctional success, is one example of a performance measure that many states use. Broadly defined as reengaging in criminal behavior after receiving a sanction or intervention, recidivism is an important performance measure for justice agencies and should be at the heart of any effort to evaluate JRI outcomes. Unfortunately, recidivism is most frequently reported as a single, statewide rate, which is too imprecise to draw meaningful conclusions and insufficient for assessing the impact of changes to policy and practice" (p. 2). This brief shows how your agencies can use recidivism data to make better decisions beyond the system-level. The four steps explained are: definition—use multiple measures of success; collection—develop protocols to ensure data are consistent, accurate, and timely; analysis—account for the underlying composition of the population; and dissemination—package the findings to maximize impact and get the results into the hands of decision-makers.

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  • Victim Services and PREA: A Trauma-Informed Approach

    Victim Services and PREA: A Trauma-Informed Approach Cover
    Victim Services and PREA: A Trauma-Informed Approach

    This training program "was designed to prepare corrections staff to develop and implement a victim services program that is both trauma-informed and victim-centered. The curriculum includes material that involves aspects of the following PREA standards: 115.16, 115.21–.22, 115.51, 115.53–.54, 115.61–.68, 115.73, 115.81–.83, and 115.86. The curriculum guides officials, step-by-step, through the process of establishing victim services programs in a variety of confinement settings; prepares staff members to carry out trauma-informed, victim-services programs, including collaboration with community advocacy agencies; helps create a corrections culture where reporting sexual abuse and sexual harassment is perceived as a viable option; and contributes to efforts to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and sexual harassment." The curriculum is made up of an Instructor’s Guide and Lesson Plans, pre- and post-tests, and presentation slides for the following seven modules: Developing a Victim-Centered Response to Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Understanding the PREA Standards on Victim Services; Understanding Sexual Abuse and Trauma; Reporting Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Sexual Assault Response Teams (SART); and Collaborating With Prosecuting Authorities.

    Web Page
  • PREA Employee Training

    PREA Employee Training Cover
    PREA Employee Training

    "This curriculum was developed to assist agencies in addressing training requirements found in PREA standards 115.31, 115.131, 115.231, and 115.331. Because each correctional setting represents distinct differences that cannot be captured easily in a one-size-fits-all training, it is anticipated that trainers will customize this training to more fully meet the specific needs of a particular facility or agency. To that end, it is essential that trainers work diligently with the agency PREA coordinator to collect appropriate policies and procedures referenced in the facilitator guides for each unit. Understanding and fulfilling agency policy requirements is a vital part of addressing requirements of the PREA standards .. Due to the sensitive topics covered in these training modules, it is recommended that the trainer identify a mental health practitioner or a local resource who can work with any staff who may be triggered when discussing or hearing about the topics covered in the trainings. It is important to identify the mental health provider prior to beginning each training unit or at the beginning of each day of training." This curriculum package includes presentation slides and lesson plans for the following units: Unit 1—PREA Overview and Your Role; Unit 2--Inmates’ Rights to be Free From Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment and Inmates’ Rights to be Free From Retaliation for Reporting; Unit 3.1--Prevention and Detection of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Unit 3.2--Response and Reporting of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Harassment; Unit 4--Professional Boundaries; and Unit 5--Effective and Professional Communication With Inmates.

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  • Ending Silence: Demanding Safety from Sexual Assault Graphic Novel Series

    Ending Silence: Demanding Safety from Sexual Assault Graphic Novel Series Cover
    Ending Silence: Demanding Safety from Sexual Assault Graphic Novel Series

    This is an excellent "series of graphic novels for adult inmates in custodial settings. These graphic novels are intended to educate inmates about how to identify and address incidents of sexual assault. The plot lines in these graphic novels dramatize situations we know occur in custodial settings. The use of graphic novels in community education projects is well established. Through presenting information through an illustrative medium, these novels aim to disseminate information about the sexual abuse reporting process to inmates at all literacy levels. These novels were developed with Inmate Education standard 115.33 of the Prison Rape Elimination Act National Standards in mind. These graphic novels are a first step in reaching out to inmates in order to help them identify, address, and respond to incidents of sexual abuse by staff or other inmates". The three books in the series are: "I Reported It" which focuses on gender non-conforming inmates; "Don't Touch Me" for male inmates; and "The Barter" for female inmates.

    Web Page
  • Sam Survives [Graphic Novel]

    Sam Survives [Graphic Novel] Cover
    Sam Survives [Graphic Novel]

    This publication is an excellent graphic novel for male youthful inmates, those under 18 years of age, which provides them vital information about possible exposure to sexual abuse in adult correctional settings. "The novel raises several important issues including: (1) the code of silence among inmates and correctional staff in a facility; (2) beliefs about protective pairing; (3) the experience of gender non-conforming inmates; and (4) and female staff as perpetrators of sexual abuse". It is a prime educational tool developed with the Inmate Education Standard, § 115.33 of the National PREA Standards released on May 17, 2012. A separate set of discussion questions are also available.

    Web Page
  • Gender Nonconforming Youth: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Gender Nonconforming Youth: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline Cover
    Gender Nonconforming Youth: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    This report provides an excellent explanation of why some gender nonconforming youth end up involved with the juvenile justice system. "Gender nonconformity, or GNC, is a term used to describe a person’s identity or expression of gender. A GNC person may express their gender through the clothes they wear, the activities they engage in, the pronouns they use, and/or their mannerisms. This expression may embrace masculinity, femininity, neither, or both. GNC is also an umbrella term used to describe various gender identities such as genderqueer, gender fluid, boi, gender neutral, and/or transgender. In general, GNC youth do not conform to stereotypical expectations of what it means to be and to look like a male or a female" (p. 1). The term school push-out refers to students being marginalized in school and/or forced out of school before they graduate. Sections of this report cover: gender nonconforming youth and school climate; GNC youth and the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP); GNC youth report incidents of harsh school discipline and biased application of policies; they report being blamed for their own victimization; and the multiple challenges that GNC youth have to deal with.

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  • LGBTQ Youth of Color: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    › LGBTQ Youth of Color: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline Cover
    LGBTQ Youth of Color: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    This is an excellent report about an issue that is little known—the involvement of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning) youth of color in the juvenile justice system. Topics discussed include: LGBTQ youth of color and the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP); school push-out—the marginalization in school and/or forcing out of school of these youth before they graduate; LGBTQ youth of color report increased surveillance and policing; these youth report incidents of harsh school discipline and biased application of policies; these youth report being blamed for their own victimization; and the immense challenges LGBTQ youth of color have to contend with.

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  • Facts and Fictions about Islam in Prison: Assessing Prisoner Radicalization in Post-9/11 America

    Facts and Fictions about Islam in Prison: Assessing Prisoner Radicalization in Post-9/11 America Cover
    Facts and Fictions about Islam in Prison: Assessing Prisoner Radicalization in Post-9/11 America

    This report explains how violence due to prison radicalization by Muslims is a rare event. "This report assesses the radicalization of Muslim prisoners in post-9/11 America. In the last decade, Muslim prisoners have been scrutinized for ties to terrorist and other extremist organizations, not to mention characterized as both a “threat” and a “danger” to national security, due to the influence of foreign jihadist movements. However, closer scrutiny shows that these fears have failed to materialize—indeed, despite the existence of an estimated 350,000 Muslim prisoners, there is little evidence of widespread radicalization or successful foreign recruitment, and only one documented case of prison-based terrorist activity. Nonetheless, some prison systems have implemented an aggressive posture toward these inmates and have made suppressive tactics their bedrock policy. This approach unfortunately overlooks Islam’s long history of positive influence on prisoners, including supporting inmate rehabilitation for decades " (p. 5). Sections of this report following an executive summary include: introduction to the politics of Islam and radicalization in American prisons—social fears vs. social science; how Islam operates in American prisons—effects of Islamic values and beliefs on inmate behavior, and the role of social networks; investigating extremist views and violence among Muslim inmates—failure to define terms and the problem, whether prisons are factories for extremists, and understanding the challenges of extremist ideology; and conclusion—false alarms, toward best practices, fostering an Islamic marketplace, and stabilizing prisoner re-entry.

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  • Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation: Summary Findings and Implications from a Multisite Study

    Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation Cover
    Examining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Probation Revocation: Summary Findings and Implications from a Multisite Study

    "Racial and ethnic disparity is pervasive in the American criminal justice system. This is particularly stark for blacks, who despite constituting just 13 percent of the US population, account for 30 percent of adult probationers, 37 percent of jail inmates, 38 percent of prisoners, and 40 percent of parolees. Such disparities have broad consequences, from impacts on the health and functioning of minority communities to perceptions of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. There are more probationers than parolees, prisoners, and jail inmates combined. Probation practice and outcomes thus affect the lives of more adults than any other criminal justice sanction. Further, probation supervision represents an important fork in the road for justice-involved individuals, with failure on probation setting a path for more severe sanctioning, particularly incarceration. Disparities in probation revocations could then contribute to disparities in incarceration. Yet, few studies examine racial and ethnic disparities at this decision point. This brief discusses Urban’s study examining the degree of disparity in probation revocation outcomes and the drivers of that disparity" (p. 1). Sections include: key findings—revocation rates for Black probationers are the greatest with risk assessment scores and criminal history being major factors in revocation; findings regarding probation stakeholder perceptions of bias in the criminal justice system, higher revocation rates for Black probationers, disparity observed when controlling for nonracial and non-ethical characteristics, and contributors to disparity; discussion and policy implications; and ten policy recommendations such as committing to monitor disparity, investing in cultural competency training (CCT), utilizing alternatives to revocation, and reexamining risk assessments and their impact on decisionmaking.

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  • Cross Gender Supervision and Legal Liability [Webinar]

    Cross Gender Supervision and Legal Liability [Webinar] Cover
    Cross Gender Supervision and Legal Liability [Webinar]

    "This webinar focuses on the legal liability of agencies and staff when engaging in cross gender supervision and searches of people in custody." Topics discussed include: important factors for cross gender searches and supervision; the legal framework—Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) standards and DOJ guidance, Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act, Prison Litigation Reform Act, Violence Against Women Act amendments, PREA exhaustion of administration remedies, Federal Torts Claims Act, U.S. Constitution claims, state claims, and international legal claims; forms of liability—municipal, official, individual, personal and qualified immunity; case law digest—issues raised by inmates, residents, or detainees—First Amendment, Fourth Amendment , Fourth regarding privacy, visual body cavity searches, pat downs (searches), and the Eighth Amendment; the impact of cross gender supervision and searches on youthful inmates; case law regarding employment—Title VII; women in corrections; men in corrections; gender non-conforming staff in corrections; and conclusions regarding the current state of the law.

    Webinar
  • Jail Time and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    Jail Time and Violent Juvenile Offenders Cover
    Jail Time and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    If you are interested in the sentencing of juveniles to life imprisonment you should listen to this excellent radio program. "Fighting for life without parole for young offenders. Tough states do not want to back down – or re-open old cases … For years, courts tried such minors as adults. Many were given tough life sentences. Then the U.S. Supreme Court said no. Said children – even underage killers – deserve a chance at redemption. No mandatory life sentences without parole. Now states are wrestling with that ruling. Some complying. Some pushing back. This hour On Point: juvenile offenders, life sentences, and the law."

    Mixed Media
  • Statewide Ban the Box: Reducing Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records

    Statewide Ban the Box: Reducing Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records Cover
    Statewide Ban the Box: Reducing Unfair Barriers to Employment of People with Criminal Records

    This is a great update on what is happening in the United States regarding Ban the Box initiatives. Correctional reformers, offender advocates, and probation officers should be aware of this movement. “Nationwide, over 50 cities and counties—including New York City—have now taken the critical step of removing unfair barriers to employment in their hiring policies. Widely known as “ban the box,” these initiatives typically remove the question on the job application about an individual’s conviction history and delay the background check inquiry until later in the hiring process … In an era of extreme mass incarceration, ban-the-box campaigns provide a platform to educate the public about the stigma of a criminal record and the real consequences to our society of depriving millions of Americans with past convictions of economic stability” (p. 2). Sections of this brief cover: the ten states that have embraced statewide ban the box; current state policies; legislation introduced in 2013; and related fair hiring standards—laws prohibiting discrimination based on a criminal record.

     

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