Back to top

All Library Items

  • Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System

    Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System
    Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System

    "There have been legislative proposals to implement a risk and needs assessment system in federal prisons. The system would be used to place inmates in rehabilitative programs. Under the proposed system some inmates would be eligible to earn additional time credits for participating in rehabilitative programs that reduce their risk of recidivism. Such credits would allow inmates to be placed on prerelease custody earlier. The proposed system would exclude inmates convicted of certain offenses from being eligible to earn additional time credits … In general, research suggests that the most commonly used assessment instruments can, with a moderate level of accuracy, predict who is at risk for violent recidivism. It also suggests that no single instrument is superior to any other when it comes to predictive validity" (p. ii). While assessments based on the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model have been quite useful in determining high- and low-risk offenders there is still some controversy regarding the wide-scale use of assessments in the criminal justice system. Sections of this report following a summary include: an overview of risk and needs assessment; RNR principles; critiques of risk and needs assessments—making judgment about individuals based on group tendencies, the separation of assessment of risk from assessment of needs, and the potential for discriminatory effects; and select issues for congress regarding—the use of risk and needs assessment in federal prisons, the exclusion of certain inmates from earning additional time credits, whether priority should be given to high-risk offenders, the use of assessment in sentencing, and whether the emphasis on punishment should be decreased.

    Document
  • Mortality In Local Jails And State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables

    Mortality In Local Jails And State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables cover
    Mortality In Local Jails And State Prisons, 2000–2013 - Statistical Tables

    "Presents national and state-level data on the number of inmate deaths that occurred in local jails and state prisons, the distribution of deaths across jails, and the aggregate count of deaths in federal prisons. The report presents annual counts and 14-year trends between 2000 and 2013 in deaths in custody. It provides mortality rates per 100,000 inmates in custody in jail or prison; details the causes of death, including deaths attributed to homicide, suicide, illness, intoxication, and accidental injury; describes decedents' characteristics, including age, sex, race or Hispanic origin, legal and hold status, and time served; and specifies the state where the deaths occurred. Data are from the Bureau of Justice Statistics' Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, initiated in 2000 under the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297). Some highlights include: local jail inmate deaths increased 1%, from 958 deaths in 2012 to 967 deaths in 2013; suicides in local jails increased 9%, from 300 suicides in 2012 to 327 in 2013; deaths in prison increased from 3,357 in 2012 to 3,479 in 2013, reaching the highest number since the prison data collection began in 2001--total number of deaths increased 4% between 2012 and 2013; Illness-related deaths accounted for 89% of all deaths in prison in 2013.

    Web Page
  • Trauma-Informed Care and Trauma-Specific Services: A Comprehensive Approach to Trauma Intervention

    Trauma-Informed Care and Trauma-Specific Services: A Comprehensive Approach to Trauma Intervention cover
    Trauma-Informed Care and Trauma-Specific Services: A Comprehensive Approach to Trauma Intervention

    "This brief addresses the need for a comprehensive approach to trauma intervention across service settings. In doing so, we define these complementary approaches, identify core principles and current practice for each, and discuss how both are being integrated across service sectors. Finally, we identify next steps for providers, researchers, and policymakers to ensure that all service systems are prepared to sustain this comprehensive approach to trauma intervention" (p. 1) "“Trauma-specific services” and “trauma-informed care” are sometimes used interchangeably; both provide care for people exposed to traumatic stress. However, trauma-specific services are clinical interventions, whereas trauma-informed care addresses organizational culture and practice. Trauma-specific services are clinical interventions that are designed to address trauma-related symptoms and PTSD directly in individuals and groups. In contrast, trauma-informed care is defined as a universal framework that requires changes to the practices, policies, and culture of an entire organization, so all staff have the awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to support trauma survivors" (p. 4). Sections of this publication include: introduction; prevalence and impact of traumatic stress; trauma-specific vs. trauma-informed; trauma-informed care and trauma-specific services—why both are needed; trauma intervention across service systems; next steps for the field; and conclusion.

    Document
  • Silence to Signs: Bridging the Communication Gap for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inmates in Prisons

    Silence to Signs: Bridging the Communication Gap for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inmates in Prisons cover
    Silence to Signs: Bridging the Communication Gap for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Inmates in Prisons

    There is a major lack of information about offenders with hearing disorders. Therefore this report is amazingly important. Any agency with deaf offenders needs to read this document. "This article addresses issues regarding deaf prisoners’ right to communication and provides a thorough understanding of Deaf culture and communication, and the importance of sign language to both of these. The project attempts to dig deeper into the research question of how sign language is inseparably linked to effective communication access for deaf and hard of hearing people. Secondly, it addresses whether if American Sign Language (ASL) classes should be offered in prisons" (p. 1). Sections following an executive summary include: background to violations of the American with Disabilities Act (ACA) and human rights; issues related to the prison system and deaf culture—misconceptions, no universal sign language, ASL's grammar and dictionary, lipreading as an inadequate mode of communication, aggressiveness, additional issues, advancing technology with prisons lagging behind, and the key of communication access; the project and its development; data and findings regarding a proposed ASL class; recommendations for implementing an ASL class; and conclusion.

    Document
  • Washington Corrections Center for Women TEDx Talks

    Washington Corrections Center for Women TEDx Talks cover
    Washington Corrections Center for Women TEDx Talks

    This website provides access to TEDx videos given at the Washington Corrections Center for Women (WCCW) "Does Gender Matter" event on March 14, 2015. Topics range from the "Northern Cree Women's Honor Song" by the Broken Wing Center, "Tell Me You Don’t See" by Tiffany Williams, "Summon Your Courage" by Cathryn Cummings, "The Hard Stuff" by Felice Davis, "Judging Societie by Women's Prison" by Emily Salisbury, to "Coming to a Neighborhood Near Your" by Marriam Oliver". There are 21 talks.

    Mixed Media
  • Rights of Rastafarian Employees and Inmates

    Rights of Rastafarian Employees and Inmates Cover
    Rights of Rastafarian Employees and Inmates

    "Rastafarians are named after Ras (Prince) Tafari, Selassie’s title before being crowned Emperor in 1930. The movement later was influenced by Jamaicans. There are estimates that there are as many as one million adherents to the religion worldwide. In the U.S., most adherents are African-Americans. Rastafarians engage in the spiritual use of cannabis, wear their hair in dreadlocks and are generally opposed to cutting their hair. The Ital vegetarian diet is one of the main tenets of the Rastafari movement. Those who adhere to it abstain from all meat and flesh whatsoever, asserting that to touch meat is to touch death. Some Rastafarians, however, do eat some meat nevertheless, but no pork or shellfish" (p. 201). This article covers legal issues associated with Rastafarian staff and inmates and provides suggestions for addressing these challenges. Sections of this publication include: introduction; Rastafarian employees; Rastafarian inmates; and suggestions to consider.

    Document
  • Minimize Compassion Fatigue, Avoid Burnout and Reignite Your Passion

    Minimize Compassion Fatigue, Avoid Burnout and Reignite Your Passion Cover
    Minimize Compassion Fatigue, Avoid Burnout and Reignite Your Passion

    This is an excellent introduction to compassion fatigue (CF) (aka corrections fatigue) experienced by correctional health care staff. "While there is some literature on CF and burnout among correctional officers, there is scant information on how these phenomena affect correctional health care staff. This article discusses ways that CF may adversely impact the well-being of qualified mental health professionals who work in jail and prison settings. When left untreated, CF may result in serious and detrimental personal costs to the individual and organization. These costs can be mitigated by positive self-care, which also will be addressed in this article" (p. 10). Sections of this article cover: what compassion fatigue is; the role of trauma; why we neglect ourselves; the importance of prevention; compassion satisfaction—the flip side of CF; calendar it—planning ahead for self-care; organizational considerations; and taking care of yourself.

    Document
  • Pretrial Assistance to California Counties: (PACC): Humboldt County Technical Assistance Report

    Pretrial Assistance Cover
    Pretrial Assistance to California Counties: (PACC): Humboldt County Technical Assistance Report

    "This report provides an overview of technical assistance process and results in Humboldt County. It describes CJI work with Humboldt County officials to identify goals, make process improvements, and measure outcomes. It also describes challenges for Humboldt County—and potentially for other California jurisdictions—as they work to improve the pretrial justice system going forward." Sections of this publication include: introduction; background; California Policy Reform—Senate Bill 678 and Assembly Bill 109; PACC technical assistance process; key findings regarding release methods, pretrial screening, and additional findings; Humboldt's goals and strategies in implementing a Supervised Release Program (SRP); and looking forward to addressing release timing, and Proposition 47.

    Document
  • Tribal Legal Code Resource: Domestic Violence Laws Guide for Drafting or Revising Victim-Centered Tribal Laws Against Domestic Violence

    tribal legal code cover
    Tribal Legal Code Resource: Domestic Violence Laws Guide for Drafting or Revising Victim-Centered Tribal Laws Against Domestic Violence

    "All governments should be very concerned about domestic violence against Native women. Tribal governments across the United States are creating programs to improve response to violent crime. As sovereign governments, tribes can assert jurisdiction in criminal and civil actions involving assaults against Native women … As sovereign governments, many tribes have asserted concurrent or exclusive criminal and/or civil jurisdiction in domestic violence cases. A key piece of responding to domestic violence is to draft or revise tribal domestic violence laws. This resource guide was developed to provide a starting point for drafting or revising tribal laws on domestic violence. It is written with a philosophy that tribal laws should reflect tribal values. In addition, writing a tribal law usually requires careful consideration of how state and/or federal laws might apply in the community. This resource guide includes examples from a variety of tribal codes and discussion questions that are designed to help tribal community members decide on the best laws for your community" (p. 1). Resources are organized into the following sections: general provisions; jurisdiction—criminal or civil; criminal domestic violence statutes—defining domestic violence, role of law enforcement, role of tribal prosecutors, role of courts, evidence, victims' rights in criminal proceedings, and sanctions; protective orders—developing civil protective orders, violating protective orders, and full faith and credit; family law and child custody; and education and batterer intervention.

    Web Page
  • Women, Trauma & Incarceration: What They Say, How We Work

    Women Trauma and Incarceration cover
    Women, Trauma & Incarceration: What They Say, How We Work

    This presentation is a very good introduction for the impact of trauma on female offenders, and the need for justice-informed practices. It may be from Canada, but it speaks to all of the issues facing female trauma and incarceration in the United States. Topics discussed include: why trauma is an important issue; defining trauma; vicarious trauma; trauma-informed practices; voices of trauma—a call for help; triggers and trauma reactions; trauma-informed versus trauma-specific; where trauma-informed practices should be used; guidelines for trauma-informed practices in women's substance use services; trauma-informed vs. not trauma-informed; pathways to trauma-informed practices; and future directions.

    Mixed Media
  • Restrictive Housing FAQ

    restrictive housing faq cover
    Restrictive Housing FAQ

    "Restrictive housing, sometimes known as administrative segregation, is the practice of housing some inmates separately from the general population of a correctional institution and imposing restrictions on their movement, behavior, and privileges." This compilation of answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ) informs the reader about the concerns surrounding the use of restrictive housing (aka administrative housing, departmental segregation, and security housing units). Topics covered are: what restrictive housing is and how it works; why it is used; what the conditions are in restrictive housing; whether restrictive housing is different from solitary confinement; the commonality of restrictive housing use and whether its population is growing; why it is controversial; the fiscal impact of restrictive housing; and the impact of restrictive housing on mental health.

    Document
  • Creating an Effective Pretrial Program: A Toolkit for Practitioners

    creating an effective pretrial program cover
    Creating an Effective Pretrial Program: A Toolkit for Practitioners

    Pretrial program models "have evolved considerably in recent decades, and there is evidence to show that they can be more successful than the money bail system at ensuring public safety and court appearance. There are many evidence-based options available to communities seeking to implement or strengthen pretrial programs … Many counties are now exploring such programs, asking critical questions about whom among those awaiting trial needs to be in jail and who can be managed successfully in the community. This toolkit offers guidance to county officials on how to develop and operate these programs at the local level, building upon available literature on effective pretrial policies and practices" (p. 1). Sections of this toolkit are: introduction; an overview of pretrial; pretrial programs—risk assessment; diversion; supervision; assessing pretrial effectiveness; ongoing measurement and enhancement; and conclusion. An appendix includes the fact sheet "What does California state law say about pretrial release?"

    Document
  • Constitutional Implications of Restrictive Housing

    Constitutional Implications of Restrictive Housing cover
    Constitutional Implications of Restrictive Housing

    "The prison setting imposes greater than normal restrictions on liberty, privacy, and communication. As a result, the prison comes under greater legal scrutiny regarding extent of the restrictions and deprivations of those restrictions and deprivations. Within the prison setting, the placement of inmates in restrictive housing or administrative segregation generates even greater judicial scrutiny due to the level of restriction, reasonableness of the placement and the indeterminate length of the segregation. Even with the proper policies in place, the conditions and programming in restrictive housing require careful review and attention for any correctional facility. In the past few decades, prisoners and prisoner right advocates have successfully challenged many departments on the use of restrictive housing. The following presents a brief overview of the areas in which departments have faced legal challenges" (p. 1). Constitutional challenges regarding restrictive housing in the recent past have been made based on First Amendment, Fourth Amendment, Sixth Amendment, Eighth Amendment, and the Fourteenth Amendment.

    Document
  • Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes

    Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes cover
    Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes

    "The current study seeks to investigate the effect of pretrial supervision on the likelihood of failure to appear (FTA) and new criminal activity (NCA) before case disposition. First, drawing on data from two states, this research isolates two groups of defendants: those released pending case disposition with supervision and those released without supervision. Second, this research compares the two groups across several descriptive factors regarding likelihood of FTA and NCA while in the community pending case disposition" (p. 3). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; sample description; and findings regarding the impact of pretrial supervision on the likelihood of FTA and NCA while awaiting case disposition. When moderate- and high-risk defendants had pretrial supervision they were 33% less likely not to appear in court, while all those defendants who were supervised for 180 days or more were 36% less likely to be re-arrested for new offenses.

    Document
  • Campaign Against Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling (CAIJS)

    Campaign Against Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling (CAIJS) cover
    Campaign Against Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling (CAIJS)

    "The indiscriminate shackling of youth unnecessarily humiliates, stigmatizes, and traumatizes them. The practice impedes the attorney-client relationship, chills juveniles’ constitutional right to due process, runs counter to the presumption of innocence, and draws into question the rehabilitative ideals of the juvenile court. CAIJS works with advocates, judges, members of the media, and medical professionals in states across the country to both educate stakeholders on the harms of shackling young people, and promote laws, regulations, and court orders prohibiting the shackling of young people during juvenile proceedings unless the judge makes an affirmative finding that the specific child is a danger in the courtroom or a flight risk." Information on this website includes: resources—"Model Statute / Court Rule", "Shackling Reform Statewide, Administrative Orders & Statutes" (June 2015), "Ending Universal Shackling of Children in Court—Webinar", and CAIJS Fact Sheet on Indiscriminate Juvenile Shackling; affidavits regarding indiscriminate shackling of juveniles from experts in the field; policy statements and position papers from national associations; American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section Resolution and Report to the House of Delegates.

    Web Page
  • The Costs of Pretrial Justice

    costs of pretrial
    The Costs of Pretrial Justice

    This "series of briefs which explore the costs of pretrial justice and how those costs can be effectively mitigated through risk-based decision making." "The Cost of Pretrial Justice: This brief highlights costs that local stakeholders should consider when developing pretrial policies and programs, outlines some of the trade-offs policy makers face when allocating scarce resources, and points to the need to apply cost-benefit analysis to pretrial decision making." "Pretrial Justice: Costs and Benefits for Local Government: This brief explains how cost-benefit analysis can be applied to the pretrial justice system and describes the process through which CJI and its partners identified the key components of a pretrial cost-benefit model for use by local jurisdictions." "A Cost-Benefit Model for Pretrial Justice: This brief describes the local data and collaboration that are required for pretrial cost-benefit analysis, highlights its benefits for policy and planning, and suggests questions that local jurisdictions should ask if they are considering undertaking pretrial cost-benefit analysis."

    Document
  • Pretrial Analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts Technical Assistance Report and Addendum

    Pretrial Analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts Technical Assistance Report and Addendum cover
    Pretrial Analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts Technical Assistance Report and Addendum

    "This report summarizes the primary findings and recommendations from a pretrial analysis for Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Peter Koutoujian, Sheriff of Middlesex County acted on behalf of multiple justice system stakeholders in the county to request technical assistance to receive an analysis of the pretrial jail population, trend analysis and related practices. The purpose of which is to examine the possible causes of increasing numbers of pretrial defendants remaining in custody, leading to overcrowding and subsequent jail cap releases" (p. 4). Sections of this report include: Middlesex County overview; infrastructure; jail and pretrial process analysis; challenges and opportunities—coordination and collaborative decision-making, data driven decisions, risk informed, outcome measures, outcome focused, and deliberate and affirmative decisions; and seven recommendations. "This addendum to the December 2014 report is being prepared in response to questions and discussions that have occurred since its release … this new analysis does not invalidate the summary and conclusions of the original report. Specifically, the need for improved collaboration and coordination between the major stakeholders; the need to develop, maintain, and utilize system performance and outcome measures in driving policy, and the need to address case processing issues such as: risk-based versus money bail release decisions, and pretrial supervision and diversion options " (p. 2).

    Document
  • American Prisons Are Not a Revolving Door: Most Released Offenders Never Return

    American Prisons Are Not a Revolving Door: Most Released Offenders Never Return cover
    American Prisons Are Not a Revolving Door: Most Released Offenders Never Return

    "The dominant narrative around recidivism in America is that most released offenders go on to reoffend and return to prison. In new research, William Rhodes argues that this impression is wrong and that two out of every three released offenders never return to prison. He argues that previous estimates about recidivism have failed to take into account the overrepresentation of returnees in prisons. Accounting for this factor, he finds that only 11 percent of offenders return to prison more than once, and that the total time that offenders actually spend in prison is overestimated as well." This article is based on "Following Incarceration, Most Released Offenders Never Return to Prison", from the journal Crime & Delinquency (published online before print September 29, 2014).

    Web Page
  • Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes

    Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes cover
    Investigating the Impact of Pretrial Detention on Sentencing Outcomes

    "Each time a person is arrested and accused of a crime, a decision must be made as to whether the accused person, known as the defendant, will be detained in jail awaiting trial or will be released back into the community. But pretrial detention is not simply an either-or proposition; many defendants are held for a number of days before being released at some point before their trial. The release-and-detention decision takes into account a number of different concerns, including protecting the community, the need for defendants to appear in court, and upholding the legal and constitutional rights afforded to accused persons awaiting trial. It carries enormous consequences not only for the defendant but also for the safety of the community" (p. 3). This study examines the relationship between pretrial detention and sentencing. Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; sample description; and findings for eight research questions regarding the relations between pretrial detention and sentencing. Defendants who are detained for the entire pretrial period are three times more likely to be sentenced to jail or prison and to receive longer jail and prison sentences.

    Document
  • County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release

    County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release cover
    County Jails at a Crossroads: An Examination of the Jail Population and Pretrial Release

    "This study is the first to examine the participation of county jails in pretrial release. The report identifies the pretrial status and risk level of the county jail population and variations across counties of different population sizes. Further, this research analyzes the challenges that county jails face with their pretrial and overall jail population. The study details to what extent county jails use community based programs to release pretrial detainees from confinement in jail and supervise them in the community. In addition, the research examines the presence of other county policies and practices that may result in the release of the pretrial population from jail. This report provides a first step in understanding the role of counties in pretrial release" (p. 7). Sections following an executive summary include: introduction; key terms; Finding 1—the majority of the jail population is pretrial and low risk; Finding 2—counties are caught between courts' decision-making and increases in the jail population and jail costs; Finding 3—some county jails supervise pretrial detainees outside of confinement; and conclusion.

    Document
  • Alabama’s Justice Reinvestment Approach

    Alabama’s Justice Reinvestment Approach cover
    Alabama’s Justice Reinvestment Approach

    "Faced with the most crowded prison system in the nation and overwhelmed probation and parole systems, state leaders in Alabama pursued justice reinvestment. After extensive analyses identified key challenges in the state’s criminal justice system, policymakers developed a policy framework designed to reduce prison overcrowding and strengthen community-based supervision. Justice reinvestment legislation was enacted in May 2015 and is projected to avert $380 million in construction and operations cost by FY2021." Sections of this brief include: overview; summary of justice reinvestment process—challenge, findings, and solutions; summary of SB 67 policies to strengthen community-based supervision and to reduce recidivism, prioritize prison space for violent and dangerous offenders, and ensure supervision for everyone upon release from prison, and expand victim notification; looking ahead; sustainability policies; and "Projected Impact of SB 67 on Alabama's Prison population" chart.

    Document
  • Franklin County, Ohio: A County Justice and Behavioral Health Systems Improvement Project

    Franklin County, Ohio: A County Justice and Behavioral Health Systems Improvement Project cover
    Franklin County, Ohio: A County Justice and Behavioral Health Systems Improvement Project

    "An extensive data analysis coupled with over 50 in-person interviews with local and state leaders led to the identification of key recommendations for reducing the number of people with behavioral health disorders cycling in and out of jail." Sections of this report include: background; summary of core challenges; funding for behavioral health treatment and services; "Franklin County, OH Criminal System Flow" chart; methodology; sources of data for the analysis chart; assessing behavioral health disorders and risk of recidivism in the jail population; measuring the population of homelessness; findings—more than half of all adults entering jail return within three years of release, information on risk and needs is not systematically collected and used to inform decision making, people who have behavioral health disorders stay longer in jail and return more frequently than those without behavioral health disorders, and many people with behavioral health disorders released from jail are not receiving the treatment and supports they need in the community; average length of stay in jail for people with behavioral health disorders chart; percentage of people with behavioral health disorders rebooked within three years of release chart; and eight recommendations.

    Document
  • Justice Reinvestment in Kansas: Strengthening Probation Supervision and Promoting Successful Reentry

    Justice Reinvestment in Kansas: Strengthening Probation Supervision and Promoting Successful Reentry cover
    Justice Reinvestment in Kansas: Strengthening Probation Supervision and Promoting Successful Reentry

    This report describes efforts of Kansas to implement justice reinvestment—"a data-driven approach designed to reduce corrections spending and reinvest savings in strategies that can reduce recidivism and improve public safety". Kansas's justice reinvestment policy framework "designed to strengthen community-based supervision, promote successful reentry, and target scare resources more effectively" and legislation created to support this framework are reviewed (p. 1). Sections contained in this brief include: background; key public safety provisions in HB 2170; developing policy solutions—legislation (HB2170) and its projected impact; looking ahead—addressing expected prison overcrowding; "Actual and Estimated Impact of HB 2170 on Kansas's Prison Population" graph; and "Summary of Full Projected Impact, Savings, and Recommended Reinvestment" table. HB2170 is projected to reduce prison operating costs by $56 million and construction costs by $25 million for the period of FY2014 through FY2018.

    Document
  • Nebraska’s Justice Reinvestment Approach: Reduce Prison Overcrowding and Expanding Probation and Parole Supervision

    Nebraska’s Justice Reinvestment Approach: Reduce Prison Overcrowding and Expanding Probation and Parole Supervision cover
    Nebraska’s Justice Reinvestment Approach: Reduce Prison Overcrowding and Expanding Probation and Parole Supervision

    "Faced with a prison system at 159 percent of capacity and expected to grow to 170 percent of capacity by FY2020, state leaders in Nebraska pursued justice reinvestment. After extensive analyses identified key challenges in the state’s criminal justice system, policymakers developed a policy framework designed to reduce prison overcrowding and expand the use of probation and parole supervision. Justice reinvestment legislation was enacted in May 2015 and is projected to avert $306 million in construction and operations costs by FY2020." Sections of this brief include: overview; summary of the justice reinvestment process—challenge, findings, and solutions; summary of LB 605policies to use probation rather than incarceration for people convicted of low-level offenses, and increase penalty thresholds for property offenses, enhance felony classifications, ensure post-release supervision for most people upon release from prison, and address victims' needs, and improve parole supervision to reduce recidivism; looking ahead; sustainability policies in LB 605; and "Projected Impact of LB 605 on Nebraska's Prison Population" chart.

    Document
  • Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons

    Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons cover
    Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons

    "It is well known that US prisons and jails have taken on the role of mental health facilities. This new role for them reflects, to a great extent, the limited availability of community-based outpatient and residential mental health programs and resources, and the lack of alternatives to incarceration for men and women with mental disabilities who have engaged in minor offenses … persons with mental disabilities who are behind bars are at heightened risk of physical mistreatment by staff. This report is the first examination of the use of force against inmates with mental disabilities in jails and prisons across the United States. It identifies policies and practices that lead to unwarranted force and includes recommendations for changes to end it" (p. 2). This report includes these sections: summary; key recommendations; background—disproportionate representation of individuals with mental disabilities in U.S. jails and prisons; life behind bars for persons with mental disabilities; the case of Jermaine Padilla; approaches to use of force; types of force used and their harms for prisoners with mental disabilities; retaliatory and gratuitous use of force; applicable constitutional and international human rights law; and detailed recommendations.

    Web Page
  • United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Mandela Rules)

    United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Mandela Rules) cover
    United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (the Mandela Rules)

    "The following rules are not intended to describe in detail a model system of penal institutions. They seek only, on the basis of the general consensus of contemporary thought and the essential elements of the most adequate systems of today, to set out what is generally accepted as being good principles and practice in the treatment of prisoners and prison management" (p. 8). These standards are divided into two parts. Part I--Rules of General Application: five basic principles; prisoner file management; separation of prisoner categories; accommodation; personal hygiene; clothing and bedding; food; exercise and sport; health-care services; restrictions, discipline, and sanctions; instruments of restraint; searches of prisoners and cells; information to and complaints by prisoners; contact with the outside world; books; religion; retention of prisoners' property; notifications of prisoner injury, death, or serious illness; investigations; removal of prisoners from an institution; institutional personnel; and internal and external inspections. Part II—Rules Applicable to Special Categories: prisoners under sentence—five guiding principles specifically for prisons, treatment, classification and individualization, privileges, work, education and recreation, and social relations and aftercare; prisoners with mental disabilities and/or health conditions; prisoners under arrest or awaiting trial; and civil prisoners (non-criminal charges).

    Document
  • Re-Examining Juvenile Incarceration

    Re-Examining Juvenile Incarceration cover
    Re-Examining Juvenile Incarceration

    "A growing body of research demonstrates that for many juvenile offenders, lengthy out-of-home placements in secure corrections or other residential facilities fail to produce better outcomes than alternative sanctions. In certain instances, they can be counterproductive. Seeking to reduce recidivism and achieve better returns on their juvenile justice spending, several states have recently enacted laws that limit which youth can be committed to these facilities and moderates the length of time they can spend there. These changes prioritize the use of costly facilities and intensive programming for serious offenders who present a higher risk of reoffending, while supporting effective community-based programs for others" (p.1). Sections of this brief include: overview; out-of-home placements do not improve outcomes for most youth; most Ohio youth supervised in the community have lower recidivism rates; evidence does not support longer lengths of stay; longer stays do not yield consistent reductions in juvenile recidivism; high cost to taxpayers, poor return on investment; daily costs at secure juvenile facilities exceed those of other common sanctions; voters prioritize rehabilitation and recidivism reduction; votes care less about whether or how long juvenile offenders are incarcerated than about preventing crime; and states put research into action—limiting out-of-home placements, and moderating length of stay.

    Document
  • Colorado Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms

    Colorado of Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms cover
    Colorado Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms

    Access is provided to an alphabetized collection of sample forms related to juvenile corrections. These forms range from "Allegation of Abuse Worksheet" to "Critical Incident Report", "MAYSI- and SIRS-R Decision Tree and Quick Reference Sheet", "Parole Supervision Grid", "Religious Diet", "Transgender & Intersex Search Procedure Training", "What You Should Know about Sexual Abuse Brochure".

    Web Page
  • The Road from Crime

    The Road from Crime cover
    The Road from Crime

    While this program takes place in Scotland, it has valuable insights that can be used in your agency. "The exit at the prison gate often appears to be a revolving door with nearly 60% of released prisoners re-offending within two years of their release. Prisons and probation departments have, almost literally, tried everything in efforts to rehabilitate offenders over the past century, but the results have been uniformly bleak leading many to conclude that “nothing works.” In the past ten years, however, a group of criminologists have hit upon what should have been an obvious source of inspiration for prisoner rehabilitation: the other 40 per cent!" Allan Weaver, an ex-offender and current probation officer, discovers how other ex-prisoners break out of revolving cycle of criminal activity and recidivism. Weaver also looks how ways of changing criminal behavior can be incorporated into criminal justice interventions.

    Video
  • Improving Correctional Officer Wellness Through a Multifaceted Approach

    Improving Correctional Officer Wellness cover
    Improving Correctional Officer Wellness Through a Multifaceted Approach

    "Seven staff fatalities including three suicides in just three years (2010-2012). For professionals who operate correction facilities, stress can be a significant issue with fatal consequences. The Middlesex Sheriff’s Office (MSO) had 45 staff fatalities over the past 30 years. Twenty-four percent of these deaths were suicide. MSO believes the other deaths are tied to stress and wellness related health issues such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes and high blood pressure. MSO Sheriff Peter Koutoujian assumed the leadership role at this time and focused on improving correctional officer (CO) wellness and safety … MSO approached the Office of Justice Programs Diagnostic Center for assistance understanding the contributors to CO work-related stressors. MSO’s goal was to identify and alleviate the causes of workplace stress to improve CO wellness and safety and reduce CO suicide through implementation of evidence-based programs and promising practices" (p. 1). This document describes the Center's analysis and recommendations. Sections of this case study include: overview; data-driven programs and practices recommended to address the issue; the Diagnostic Center; the diagnostic process; six factors contributing to the issue; descriptions and details of the recommended evidence-based programs and practices; Diagnostic Center's recommendations; impact and outcome; community's response; and insight gained.

    Document
  • Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report

    Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report cover
    Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report

    Correctional agencies will find this information very valuable. "The purpose of this assessment was to obtain information on body-worn video cameras that will be useful in making operational and procurement decisions. The activities associated with this assessment were based on recommendations from a focus group of emergency responders with experience using body-worn video cameras" (p. vi). Evaluation criteria consisted of affordability, capability, deployability, maintainability, and usability. Seven products are assessed: Safety Vision LLC Prima Facie Body Camera; TASER International Inc. AXON Flex; Pinnacle Response Ltd. PR5; Black Mamba Protection LLC BMPpro+; VIEVU LLC LE3; Digital Ally Inc. FirstVu HD; and Wolfcom Enterprises Wolfcom 3rd Eye Police Body Camera. Product advantages and disadvantages are noted in a table.

    Document
  • Body-Worn Camera Toolkit

    Body-Worn Camera Toolkit cover
    Body-Worn Camera Toolkit

    "This toolkit is a comprehensive clearinghouse for criminal justice practitioners interested in planning and implementing a body-worn camera program in an effort to strengthen community trust and confidence in the justice system and improve officer and community safety." Each entry point begins with a description of that section and a video from the series "Subject Matter Experts Share". Points of entry to this website are: getting started—"Toolkit Welcome Message" from Denise O'Donnell , implementation, the "Law Enforcement Implementation Checklist", "Why Trust This Toolkit", FAQs (frequently asked questions), primer, market survey, and reports; research—"NIC Overview on BWCs" by Nancy Rodriguez, FAQs, reports, testimony, and studies; policy—"Prosecution Perspective on BWCS" by Damon Mosler, FAQs, guides, guidelines, and policies; technology—"BWC Technology Review" by Maggie Goodrich, FAQs, primer, market survey, reports, webinar, and best practices; privacy—"Privacy Perspective on BWC's" by Jay Stanley, FAQs, reports, guidelines, best practices, and webinars; training—"BWC Training Recommendations" from Hampshire Constabulary, UK, FAQs, primer, policies, guidelines, and webinar; and community stakeholders—"Defense Attorney Perspective on BWCs" by Seth Morris, FAQs, reports, model policy, and guidelines.

    Mixed Media
  • Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034: Report of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop

    Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034: Report of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop cover
    Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034: Report of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop

    "This report describes the results of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop, which was held at RAND's Washington Office in Arlington, Virginia, from July 22 to 25, 2014. The objective of this workshop was to identify high-priority technology needs for law enforcement based on consideration of current and future trends in society, technology, and law enforcement over a ten- to 20-year time period." Five chapters comprise this report: introduction; methodology; future law enforcement scenarios—current position, current roles of technology, emerging uses of technology, and future scenarios; technology needs—ranking, topic areas of ranked technology needs, and technology categorization of ranked technology needs; and conclusions—information sharing as a driver toward desirable futures, education and development as a driver, technology research and development as a driver, and conclusions from the workshop. "The output of this workshop described in the report included ten future scenarios and 30 technology needs. The technology needs fell into three general categories — technology-related knowledge and practice, information sharing and use, and technological research and development — and were placed into three priority tiers."

    Document
  • Meeting the Needs of Women in California's County Justice Systems: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Practitioners

    Meeting the Needs of Women in California's County Justice Systems: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Practitioners cover
    Meeting the Needs of Women in California's County Justice Systems: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Practitioners

    "Because fewer women are convicted of crimes and incarcerated compared to men, they can be overlooked for what may be ideal approaches to reduce crime and recidivism … The toolkit provides suggestions for innovative and focused interventions targeting the special risks and needs of women in the justice system. It provides an overview of risk and needs assessments, case management approaches, principles, strategies and programs that take into account the needs of women (gender-responsive). There are recommendations for creating community-based options for women and 10 key steps for working toward sustainable reductions in the number of women in county jails and the creation of gender-responsive community justice systems" (p. 1). Sections included in this report are: introduction; historical criminal justice and public health reforms bring new opportunities, funding crucial components; principles and six strategies for effective planning, policies, and practices; best practices and programs for eight topical areas; key steps to a gender-responsive community justice system; and conclusion.

    Document
  • Offender Reentry: The Value of Victim Involvement [Broadcast]

    Offender Reentry: The Value of Victim Involvement [Broadcast] cover
    Offender Reentry: The Value of Victim Involvement [Broadcast]

    This three-hour national discussion and broadcast by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) focuses on the unique opportunities and challenges of including victims in the offender reentry process. Current points in the criminal justice reentry continuum where victims can and should have a voice are explored. By including victims we can obtain more balanced information about the offender and their offense history which can positively impact reentry decisions. This approach can result in better outcomes for the community, offenders and victims through enhanced offender accountability, increased victim satisfaction, and community safety.

    During this program, presenters will: identify the value of involving victims throughout the offender reentry process, while ensuring victims’ rights are addressed; address corrections professionals concerns regarding interacting with victims and addressing issues of confidentiality; provide tips, tools and strategies for integrating victims into the reentry process; and identify resources, collaborative partnerships and funding opportunities for including victims in reentry programs.

    Video
  • Juvenile Drug Courts: A Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation

    Juvenile Drug Courts: A Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation cover
    Juvenile Drug Courts: A Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation

    "As an alternative to traditional juvenile courts, juvenile drug courts attempt to provide substance abuse treatment, sanctions, and incentives to rehabilitate nonviolent drug-involved youth, empower families to support them in this process, and prevent recidivism. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) sponsored a multisite study of juvenile drug courts to examine the ability of these courts to reduce recidivism and improve youth’s social functioning, and to determine whether these programs use evidence-based practices in their treatment services. This bulletin provides an overview of the findings" (p. 1). The results from this multi-site study does not support the efficacy of juvenile drug courts. In fact, juveniles who were drug court participants had higher recidivism rates than youth on probation. Based on the process evaluation, recommendations are provided for improving juvenile drug courts.

    Document
  • Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study

    Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study cover
    Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study

    "Prisoners experience high rates of drug dependence, health problems and premature mortality. Without intervention, they often come into further contact with the criminal justice system, creating further health risk. Opioid dependence is common among prisoners, yet treatment with opioid substitution therapy (OST) may reduce or prevent morbidity, mortality and offending … The results highlight that the prison setting provides an important opportunity to engage people in OST. Notably, OST treatment in prison and immediately post-release was found to be highly protective against mortality both while incarcerated and after release. Considering some of the known benefits of OST, this study provides strong evidence to support the value of OST programs within the criminal justice system" (p. 1). Results are provided for: the natural history of criminal justice system involvement among opioid-dependent people, 1993–2011; the extent of imprisonment of opioid-dependent people, 2000–12; potential differences in the impacts of buprenorphine and methadone on treatment retention and mortality; gender differences in opioid substitution therapy engagement; The association between retention in opioid substitution therapy and crime among opioid-dependent people; the impact of opioid substitution therapy provision in prison upon in-prison mortality; the impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality following release from prison; and cost effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy in reducing mortality post-release among this group.

    Document
  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015

    PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015 cover
    PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015

    "The report summarizes BJS's efforts during 2014 and the first 5 months of 2015, which included analyzing administrative records of sexual victimization in adult correctional facilities based on the Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV), implementing changes to the SSV and completing data collection, and, for the first time, providing estimates of the rates of sexual victimization among transgender inmates" … Some of the highlights from this profile include: administrators of adult correctional facilities reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in 2011, a statistically significant increase over the 8,404 allegations reported in 2010 and 7,855 in 2009; the number of allegations has risen since 2005, largely due to increases in prisons, where allegations increased from 4,791 allegations to 6,660 in 2011 (up 39%); about 52% of substantiated incidents of sexual victimization in 2011 involved only inmates, while 48% of substantiated incidents involved staff with inmates; among the estimated 1,390 youth who reported victimization by staff, 89.1% were males reporting sexual activity with female staff, and 3.0% were males reporting sexual activity with both male and female staff. In comparison, males comprised 91% of adjudicated youth in the survey, and female staff accounted for 44% of staff in the sampled facilities; and in 2011–12, an estimated 4.0% of state and federal prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility, if less than 12 months.

    Document
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts

    Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts cover
    Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts

    This website is an excellent resource for information about Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts. "[A] Tribal Healing to Wellness Court brings together alcohol and drug treatment, community healing resources, and the tribal justice process by using a team approach to achieve the physical and spiritual healing of the individual participant, and to promote Native nation building and the well-being of the community." Points of entry include: about the Tribal Law and Policy Institute (TLPI); Wellness Court resources—Tribal 10 Key Components of a Healing to Wellness Court, Healing to Wellness Court Publication Series (including "Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Key Components", and the "Overview of Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts"), webinar series, "Annual Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Enhancement Training", operations (team member roles, screening and assessment, policies and procedures, legal issues, sanctions and incentives), research (tribal drug court research, alcohol and drug abuse, and other drug court technical assistance resources), funding and sustainability, data and evaluations, target populations (such as juvenile, family, DWI, Co-Occurring Disorders, and Veterans Healing to Wellness Courts), planning a Healing to Wellness Court, healing (treatment, and incorporating culture and tradition), and restorative justice; drug court partners; and federal funding agencies.

    Web Page
  • Prisoners, Parolees, Sex Offenders, Computers, and the Internet

    Prisoners, Parolees, Sex Offenders, Computers, and the Internet cover
    Prisoners, Parolees, Sex Offenders, Computers, and the Internet

    This two-part series discussing issues and developments in the use of information technologies by inmates and offenders in the community. Part 1 looks at: the problems in general; access to computers; information from the internet; and the Trust Fund Limited Inmate Computer System (TRULINCS) used by federal prisons. Part 2 looks at supervised Internet access; cell phones and the Internet; parolees and the Internet; sex offenders and the Internet; and some suggestions for allowing limited electronic communication and Internet access.

    Document
  • LEAD: Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion

    LEAD: Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion cover
    LEAD: Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion

    "Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) is a pre-booking diversion pilot program developed with the community to address low-level drug and prostitution crimes … The program allows law enforcement officers to redirect low-level offenders engaged in drug or prostitution activity to community-based services, instead of jail and prosecution. By diverting eligible individuals to services, LEAD is committed to improving public safety and public order, and reducing the criminal behavior of people who participate in the program." LEAD reduced recidivism by 22%. Points of entry to this website include: about LEAD; latest news; multimedia; evaluation; and contact information.

    Web Page
  • Transgender, Transsexual, and Gender Nonconforming Health Care in Correctional Settings

    Transgender, Transsexual, and Gender Nonconforming Health Care in Correctional Settings cover
    Transgender, Transsexual, and Gender Nonconforming Health Care in Correctional Settings

    "Transgender people face an array of risks to their health and well-being during incarceration, and are often targets of physical assault and emotional abuse. They are commonly placed in correctional facilities according to their genitals and/or sex assigned at birth, regardless of their gender presentation. The health risks of overlooking the particular needs of transgender inmates are so severe that acknowledgment of the problem and policies that assure appropriate and responsible provision of health care are needed … Because jails, prisons, and juvenile confinement facilities have a responsibility to ensure the physical and mental health and well-being of inmates in their custody, correctional health staff should manage transgender patients in a manner that respects their biomedical and psychological needs." Twenty-five principles are provided to help correctional health professionals assure that the needs of transgender offenders are met. These principles are organized into the following sections—health management, patient safety, and discharge planning.

    Web Page
  • The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender

    The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender cover
    The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender

    "Barriers that could impede the successful implementation of a supervision program (e.g., the responsivity principle) are frequently discussed under the risk, needs, and responsivity rubric, but have been historically under-researched. This paper describes an initial empirical investigation of the presence of responsivity factors among offenders under federal post-conviction supervision. From this analysis, we know that probation officers identified 28% of the nearly 20,000 offenders placed on federal supervision between November 2013 and March 2014 as having responsivity problems serious enough to constitute major barriers to supervision interventions. The most common responsivity factors identified are inadequate transportation and mental health. Offenders classified into the highest PCRA risk category were substantially more likely to have responsivity problems than their lower risk counterparts. These and other findings involving the presence of responsivity among federally supervised offenders will be further explored in this paper." Findings are presented for: presence of responsivity factors for offenders under federal supervision; relationship between responsivity factors and offender risk and supervision levels; investigating offenders identified with "other" responsivity factors; relationship between offender demographic characteristics and responsivity factors; and variation in the presence of responsivity across the federal judicial districts.

    Document
  • Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs)

    Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) cover
    Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs)

    If you want a great source for information body-worn cameras (BWC's), then this is the place. Links are organized according to: model and specimen policies; reports and studies; legislation and interpretations; general litigation; privacy issues; Freedom of Information (FOI) requests and litigation; training documents; scholarly articles; disciplinary actions; eavesdropping laws; and selected links.

    Web Page
  • Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole

    Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole cover
    Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole

    "The current study focuses attention on a previously understudied topic – transportation deprivation in women offenders. This is a timely and important endeavor given the scale of mass incarceration, number of women on probation and parole, and the numerous barriers women with a criminal record face" (p. ii). Chapters cover: introduction—problem statement and study significance; review of the literature—women offenders' pathways to crime, risk assessment tools for women offenders, agency and structure, and study purpose, goals, and objectives; research methodology; results for quantitative analysis about the impact of transportation access on recidivism outcomes; results for qualitative analysis—descriptive statistics, types, intensity, and comparative importance of transportation problems, resources and strategies used to increase transportation access, and relationship between transportation access and recidivism; and discussion and conclusion. Access to transportation is greatly lacking for women under community supervision. Eighty-three percent of women possessing high levels of access to transportation were not rearrested.

    Document
  • Religion in Corrections – National Institute of Corrections

    Religion in Corrections – National Institute of Corrections cover
    Religion in Corrections – National Institute of Corrections

    "The program addresses religion in corrections, referred to as one of today’s hottest legal topics in corrections. Our guest was Ronald G. Turner, who has served as lead consultant on the topic for the National Institute of Corrections and a variety of organizations. During the show, he addresses the conflict between myth and reality in religious programming, shedding light on the concern of chaplains and religious directors about how to meet the safety and security needs of a facility while ensuring inmates’ First Amendment rights. Balanced with discussion about the law, trends in religious programming, and the budgetary effects of religious accommodation, the show provides a brief glimpse into the complexities of religion in corrections with a broad-based view."

    Audio
  • Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles

    Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles cover
    Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles

    "For the developmental approach to become more than an abstract framework or a philosophical perspective, practitioners need concrete policies and procedures that align youth justice with the science of adolescent development. This briefing paper describes the Positive Youth Justice model and assesses its potential as a tool for strengthening reform" (p. 1). Sections cover: introduction to positive youth development (PYD); Positive Youth Justice (PYJ) Model; two core assets—learning and doing, and attaching and belonging; developmental knowledge and justice practice; developmental science; Changing the Frame table—six assumptions on the left, three primary lens on the top; implementation challenges; All Evidence-Based Programs Available for Youth Justice table—four population or settings on the left, three intervention approached on the top; the gap in developmental approaches, broadening the reform agenda; and next steps.

    Document
  • Forgotten Women: Incarceration and Health Concerns of Minority Women

    Forgotten Women: Incarceration and Health Concerns of Minority Women cover
    Forgotten Women: Incarceration and Health Concerns of Minority Women

    Issues regarding health conditions and health education of incarcerated minority women are discussed in this paper. Topics covered include: incarcerated women's health care—infectious and chronic diseases, disease-specific care, mental health, and programs specifically for incarcerated females; health education programs in prison—education strategies from intake to reentry, and collaborative prison-community partnerships; return to the community-- post release access to care; and a conclusion explaining the need for "[I]mplementation of easy health care access, health education programs and treatment interventions during and post incarceration allow incarcerated women an opportunity to maintain medical treatment practices and have positive health outcomes" (p. 6).

    Document
  • Jail Inmates At Midyear 2014

    Jail Inmates At Midyear 2014 cover
    Jail Inmates At Midyear 2014

    This report "[p]resents estimates of the number of jail inmates at midyear 2014 by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and conviction status. This report provides estimates of year-to-year changes from midyear 2000 to midyear 2014 in the number of inmates held, average daily population, rated capacity of local jails, and percent of capacity occupied. It also includes statistics, by jurisdiction size, on changes in the number of inmates, number of admissions, and weekly turnover rate between 2013 and 2014. Estimates and standard errors are based on data collected from the Annual Survey of Jails. Highlights [include]: The number of inmates confined in county and city jails was an estimated 744,600 at midyear 2014, which was significantly lower than the peak of 785,500 inmates at midyear 2008; The jail incarceration rate decreased from a peak of 259 per 100,000 in 2007 to 234 per 100,000 at midyear 2014; The female inmate population increased 18.1% between midyear 2010 and 2014, while the male population declined 3.2%; White inmates accounted for 47% of the total jail population, blacks represented 35%, and Hispanics represented 15%; About 4,200 juveniles age 17 or younger were held in local jails at midyear 2014. They accounted for 0.6% of the confined population, down from 1.2% at midyear 2000.

    Document
  • Community Corrections and the Justice Reinvestment Act

    Community Corrections and the Justice Reinvestment Act cover
    Community Corrections and the Justice Reinvestment Act

    Topics discussed include: Division of Adult Correction and Juvenile Justice (DACJJ) base budget; community corrections base budget; average daily costs; what community corrections is; probation, parole, and post-release defined; purpose of post-release supervision (PRS); why JRA expanded PRS; Parole and Post-Release Supervision Commission; Judicial Service Coordinators; probation and parole officers; caseload averages; the changing role of probation officers; risk-needs assessment components; supervision levels; electronic monitoring; community supervision programs; Treatment for Effective Community Supervision (TECS); reinvestment; Confinement in Response to Violation (CRV) Centers; and results for prison readmission by type, for probation revocation rate, and for "quick dips" (2-3 day confinement).

    Document

Pages