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  • Colorado Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms

    Colorado of Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms cover
    Colorado Department of Human Services Youth Services Forms

    Access is provided to an alphabetized collection of sample forms related to juvenile corrections. These forms range from "Allegation of Abuse Worksheet" to "Critical Incident Report", "MAYSI- and SIRS-R Decision Tree and Quick Reference Sheet", "Parole Supervision Grid", "Religious Diet", "Transgender & Intersex Search Procedure Training", "What You Should Know about Sexual Abuse Brochure".

  • The Road from Crime

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    The Road from Crime

    While this program takes place in Scotland, it has valuable insights that can be used in your agency. "The exit at the prison gate often appears to be a revolving door with nearly 60% of released prisoners re-offending within two years of their release. Prisons and probation departments have, almost literally, tried everything in efforts to rehabilitate offenders over the past century, but the results have been uniformly bleak leading many to conclude that “nothing works.” In the past ten years, however, a group of criminologists have hit upon what should have been an obvious source of inspiration for prisoner rehabilitation: the other 40 per cent!" Allan Weaver, an ex-offender and current probation officer, discovers how other ex-prisoners break out of revolving cycle of criminal activity and recidivism. Weaver also looks how ways of changing criminal behavior can be incorporated into criminal justice interventions.

  • Improving Correctional Officer Wellness Through a Multifaceted Approach

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    Improving Correctional Officer Wellness Through a Multifaceted Approach

    "Seven staff fatalities including three suicides in just three years (2010-2012). For professionals who operate correction facilities, stress can be a significant issue with fatal consequences. The Middlesex Sheriff’s Office (MSO) had 45 staff fatalities over the past 30 years. Twenty-four percent of these deaths were suicide. MSO believes the other deaths are tied to stress and wellness related health issues such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes and high blood pressure. MSO Sheriff Peter Koutoujian assumed the leadership role at this time and focused on improving correctional officer (CO) wellness and safety … MSO approached the Office of Justice Programs Diagnostic Center for assistance understanding the contributors to CO work-related stressors. MSO’s goal was to identify and alleviate the causes of workplace stress to improve CO wellness and safety and reduce CO suicide through implementation of evidence-based programs and promising practices" (p. 1). This document describes the Center's analysis and recommendations. Sections of this case study include: overview; data-driven programs and practices recommended to address the issue; the Diagnostic Center; the diagnostic process; six factors contributing to the issue; descriptions and details of the recommended evidence-based programs and practices; Diagnostic Center's recommendations; impact and outcome; community's response; and insight gained.

  • Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report

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    Body-Worn Video Cameras for Law Enforcement Assessment Report

    Correctional agencies will find this information very valuable. "The purpose of this assessment was to obtain information on body-worn video cameras that will be useful in making operational and procurement decisions. The activities associated with this assessment were based on recommendations from a focus group of emergency responders with experience using body-worn video cameras" (p. vi). Evaluation criteria consisted of affordability, capability, deployability, maintainability, and usability. Seven products are assessed: Safety Vision LLC Prima Facie Body Camera; TASER International Inc. AXON Flex; Pinnacle Response Ltd. PR5; Black Mamba Protection LLC BMPpro+; VIEVU LLC LE3; Digital Ally Inc. FirstVu HD; and Wolfcom Enterprises Wolfcom 3rd Eye Police Body Camera. Product advantages and disadvantages are noted in a table.

  • Body-Worn Camera Toolkit

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    Body-Worn Camera Toolkit

    "This toolkit is a comprehensive clearinghouse for criminal justice practitioners interested in planning and implementing a body-worn camera program in an effort to strengthen community trust and confidence in the justice system and improve officer and community safety." Each entry point begins with a description of that section and a video from the series "Subject Matter Experts Share". Points of entry to this website are: getting started—"Toolkit Welcome Message" from Denise O'Donnell , implementation, the "Law Enforcement Implementation Checklist", "Why Trust This Toolkit", FAQs (frequently asked questions), primer, market survey, and reports; research—"NIC Overview on BWCs" by Nancy Rodriguez, FAQs, reports, testimony, and studies; policy—"Prosecution Perspective on BWCS" by Damon Mosler, FAQs, guides, guidelines, and policies; technology—"BWC Technology Review" by Maggie Goodrich, FAQs, primer, market survey, reports, webinar, and best practices; privacy—"Privacy Perspective on BWC's" by Jay Stanley, FAQs, reports, guidelines, best practices, and webinars; training—"BWC Training Recommendations" from Hampshire Constabulary, UK, FAQs, primer, policies, guidelines, and webinar; and community stakeholders—"Defense Attorney Perspective on BWCs" by Seth Morris, FAQs, reports, model policy, and guidelines.

  • Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034: Report of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop

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    Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034: Report of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop

    "This report describes the results of the Law Enforcement Futuring Workshop, which was held at RAND's Washington Office in Arlington, Virginia, from July 22 to 25, 2014. The objective of this workshop was to identify high-priority technology needs for law enforcement based on consideration of current and future trends in society, technology, and law enforcement over a ten- to 20-year time period." Five chapters comprise this report: introduction; methodology; future law enforcement scenarios—current position, current roles of technology, emerging uses of technology, and future scenarios; technology needs—ranking, topic areas of ranked technology needs, and technology categorization of ranked technology needs; and conclusions—information sharing as a driver toward desirable futures, education and development as a driver, technology research and development as a driver, and conclusions from the workshop. "The output of this workshop described in the report included ten future scenarios and 30 technology needs. The technology needs fell into three general categories — technology-related knowledge and practice, information sharing and use, and technological research and development — and were placed into three priority tiers."

  • #DeafInPrison Campaign Fact Sheet

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    #DeafInPrison Campaign Fact Sheet

    <p>This educational fact sheet is a resource from Helping Educate to Advance the Rights of the Deaf (HEARD). HEARD aims to raise awareness about the abuse of and discrimination against deaf prisoners in the United States. Answers are provided for: American Sign language (ASL) v. English; the number of deaf inmates; deaf prisoner rights; laws that apply to deaf inmates; what "prison in prison" means; policies regarding deaf prisoners; why deaf prisoners are placed in solitary confinement and what happens there; accommodations prisons are providing for deaf inmates; how deaf prisoners manage life in prison (without accommodations); abuse of deaf inmates; how phone calls are made by deaf prisoners; some immediate steps that should be taken by departments of corrections; what happens when deaf prisoners are released from incarceration; and what can those concerned with the treatment of deaf inmates can do.</p>

  • Meeting the Needs of Women in California's County Justice Systems: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Practitioners

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    Meeting the Needs of Women in California's County Justice Systems: A Toolkit for Policymakers and Practitioners

    "Because fewer women are convicted of crimes and incarcerated compared to men, they can be overlooked for what may be ideal approaches to reduce crime and recidivism … The toolkit provides suggestions for innovative and focused interventions targeting the special risks and needs of women in the justice system. It provides an overview of risk and needs assessments, case management approaches, principles, strategies and programs that take into account the needs of women (gender-responsive). There are recommendations for creating community-based options for women and 10 key steps for working toward sustainable reductions in the number of women in county jails and the creation of gender-responsive community justice systems" (p. 1). Sections included in this report are: introduction; historical criminal justice and public health reforms bring new opportunities, funding crucial components; principles and six strategies for effective planning, policies, and practices; best practices and programs for eight topical areas; key steps to a gender-responsive community justice system; and conclusion.

  • Offender Reentry: The Value of Victim Involvement [Broadcast]

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    Offender Reentry: The Value of Victim Involvement [Broadcast]

    This three-hour national discussion and broadcast by the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) focuses on the unique opportunities and challenges of including victims in the offender reentry process. Current points in the criminal justice reentry continuum where victims can and should have a voice are explored. By including victims we can obtain more balanced information about the offender and their offense history which can positively impact reentry decisions. This approach can result in better outcomes for the community, offenders and victims through enhanced offender accountability, increased victim satisfaction, and community safety.

    During this program, presenters will: identify the value of involving victims throughout the offender reentry process, while ensuring victims’ rights are addressed; address corrections professionals concerns regarding interacting with victims and addressing issues of confidentiality; provide tips, tools and strategies for integrating victims into the reentry process; and identify resources, collaborative partnerships and funding opportunities for including victims in reentry programs.

  • PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015

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    PREA Data Collection Activities, 2015

    "The report summarizes BJS's efforts during 2014 and the first 5 months of 2015, which included analyzing administrative records of sexual victimization in adult correctional facilities based on the Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV), implementing changes to the SSV and completing data collection, and, for the first time, providing estimates of the rates of sexual victimization among transgender inmates" … Some of the highlights from this profile include: administrators of adult correctional facilities reported 8,763 allegations of sexual victimization in 2011, a statistically significant increase over the 8,404 allegations reported in 2010 and 7,855 in 2009; the number of allegations has risen since 2005, largely due to increases in prisons, where allegations increased from 4,791 allegations to 6,660 in 2011 (up 39%); about 52% of substantiated incidents of sexual victimization in 2011 involved only inmates, while 48% of substantiated incidents involved staff with inmates; among the estimated 1,390 youth who reported victimization by staff, 89.1% were males reporting sexual activity with female staff, and 3.0% were males reporting sexual activity with both male and female staff. In comparison, males comprised 91% of adjudicated youth in the survey, and female staff accounted for 44% of staff in the sampled facilities; and in 2011–12, an estimated 4.0% of state and federal prison inmates and 3.2% of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization by another inmate or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility, if less than 12 months.

  • Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study

    Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study cover
    Determining the Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy upon Mortality and Recidivism among Prisoners: A 22 Year Data Linkage Study

    "Prisoners experience high rates of drug dependence, health problems and premature mortality. Without intervention, they often come into further contact with the criminal justice system, creating further health risk. Opioid dependence is common among prisoners, yet treatment with opioid substitution therapy (OST) may reduce or prevent morbidity, mortality and offending … The results highlight that the prison setting provides an important opportunity to engage people in OST. Notably, OST treatment in prison and immediately post-release was found to be highly protective against mortality both while incarcerated and after release. Considering some of the known benefits of OST, this study provides strong evidence to support the value of OST programs within the criminal justice system" (p. 1). Results are provided for: the natural history of criminal justice system involvement among opioid-dependent people, 1993–2011; the extent of imprisonment of opioid-dependent people, 2000–12; potential differences in the impacts of buprenorphine and methadone on treatment retention and mortality; gender differences in opioid substitution therapy engagement; The association between retention in opioid substitution therapy and crime among opioid-dependent people; the impact of opioid substitution therapy provision in prison upon in-prison mortality; the impact of opioid substitution therapy on mortality following release from prison; and cost effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy in reducing mortality post-release among this group.

  • Juvenile Drug Courts: A Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation

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    Juvenile Drug Courts: A Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation

    "As an alternative to traditional juvenile courts, juvenile drug courts attempt to provide substance abuse treatment, sanctions, and incentives to rehabilitate nonviolent drug-involved youth, empower families to support them in this process, and prevent recidivism. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) sponsored a multisite study of juvenile drug courts to examine the ability of these courts to reduce recidivism and improve youth’s social functioning, and to determine whether these programs use evidence-based practices in their treatment services. This bulletin provides an overview of the findings" (p. 1). The results from this multi-site study does not support the efficacy of juvenile drug courts. In fact, juveniles who were drug court participants had higher recidivism rates than youth on probation. Based on the process evaluation, recommendations are provided for improving juvenile drug courts.

  • Prisoners, Parolees, Sex Offenders, Computers, and the Internet

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    Prisoners, Parolees, Sex Offenders, Computers, and the Internet

    This two-part series discussing issues and developments in the use of information technologies by inmates and offenders in the community. Part 1 looks at: the problems in general; access to computers; information from the internet; and the Trust Fund Limited Inmate Computer System (TRULINCS) used by federal prisons. Part 2 looks at supervised Internet access; cell phones and the Internet; parolees and the Internet; sex offenders and the Internet; and some suggestions for allowing limited electronic communication and Internet access.

  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts

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    Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts

    This website is an excellent resource for information about Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts. "[A] Tribal Healing to Wellness Court brings together alcohol and drug treatment, community healing resources, and the tribal justice process by using a team approach to achieve the physical and spiritual healing of the individual participant, and to promote Native nation building and the well-being of the community." Points of entry include: about the Tribal Law and Policy Institute (TLPI); Wellness Court resources—Tribal 10 Key Components of a Healing to Wellness Court, Healing to Wellness Court Publication Series (including "Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Key Components", and the "Overview of Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts"), webinar series, "Annual Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Enhancement Training", operations (team member roles, screening and assessment, policies and procedures, legal issues, sanctions and incentives), research (tribal drug court research, alcohol and drug abuse, and other drug court technical assistance resources), funding and sustainability, data and evaluations, target populations (such as juvenile, family, DWI, Co-Occurring Disorders, and Veterans Healing to Wellness Courts), planning a Healing to Wellness Court, healing (treatment, and incorporating culture and tradition), and restorative justice; drug court partners; and federal funding agencies.

  • LEAD: Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion

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    LEAD: Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion

    "Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) is a pre-booking diversion pilot program developed with the community to address low-level drug and prostitution crimes … The program allows law enforcement officers to redirect low-level offenders engaged in drug or prostitution activity to community-based services, instead of jail and prosecution. By diverting eligible individuals to services, LEAD is committed to improving public safety and public order, and reducing the criminal behavior of people who participate in the program." LEAD reduced recidivism by 22%. Points of entry to this website include: about LEAD; latest news; multimedia; evaluation; and contact information.

  • Transgender, Transsexual, and Gender Nonconforming Health Care in Correctional Settings

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    Transgender, Transsexual, and Gender Nonconforming Health Care in Correctional Settings

    "Transgender people face an array of risks to their health and well-being during incarceration, and are often targets of physical assault and emotional abuse. They are commonly placed in correctional facilities according to their genitals and/or sex assigned at birth, regardless of their gender presentation. The health risks of overlooking the particular needs of transgender inmates are so severe that acknowledgment of the problem and policies that assure appropriate and responsible provision of health care are needed … Because jails, prisons, and juvenile confinement facilities have a responsibility to ensure the physical and mental health and well-being of inmates in their custody, correctional health staff should manage transgender patients in a manner that respects their biomedical and psychological needs." Twenty-five principles are provided to help correctional health professionals assure that the needs of transgender offenders are met. These principles are organized into the following sections—health management, patient safety, and discharge planning.

  • Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs)

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    Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs)

    If you want a great source for information body-worn cameras (BWC's), then this is the place. Links are organized according to: model and specimen policies; reports and studies; legislation and interpretations; general litigation; privacy issues; Freedom of Information (FOI) requests and litigation; training documents; scholarly articles; disciplinary actions; eavesdropping laws; and selected links.

  • The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender

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    The Neglected "R" – Responsivity and the Federal Offender

    "Barriers that could impede the successful implementation of a supervision program (e.g., the responsivity principle) are frequently discussed under the risk, needs, and responsivity rubric, but have been historically under-researched. This paper describes an initial empirical investigation of the presence of responsivity factors among offenders under federal post-conviction supervision. From this analysis, we know that probation officers identified 28% of the nearly 20,000 offenders placed on federal supervision between November 2013 and March 2014 as having responsivity problems serious enough to constitute major barriers to supervision interventions. The most common responsivity factors identified are inadequate transportation and mental health. Offenders classified into the highest PCRA risk category were substantially more likely to have responsivity problems than their lower risk counterparts. These and other findings involving the presence of responsivity among federally supervised offenders will be further explored in this paper." Findings are presented for: presence of responsivity factors for offenders under federal supervision; relationship between responsivity factors and offender risk and supervision levels; investigating offenders identified with "other" responsivity factors; relationship between offender demographic characteristics and responsivity factors; and variation in the presence of responsivity across the federal judicial districts.

  • Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole

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    Access to Transportation and Outcomes for Women on Probation and Parole

    "The current study focuses attention on a previously understudied topic – transportation deprivation in women offenders. This is a timely and important endeavor given the scale of mass incarceration, number of women on probation and parole, and the numerous barriers women with a criminal record face" (p. ii). Chapters cover: introduction—problem statement and study significance; review of the literature—women offenders' pathways to crime, risk assessment tools for women offenders, agency and structure, and study purpose, goals, and objectives; research methodology; results for quantitative analysis about the impact of transportation access on recidivism outcomes; results for qualitative analysis—descriptive statistics, types, intensity, and comparative importance of transportation problems, resources and strategies used to increase transportation access, and relationship between transportation access and recidivism; and discussion and conclusion. Access to transportation is greatly lacking for women under community supervision. Eighty-three percent of women possessing high levels of access to transportation were not rearrested.

  • Religion in Corrections – National Institute of Corrections

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    Religion in Corrections – National Institute of Corrections

    "The program addresses religion in corrections, referred to as one of today’s hottest legal topics in corrections. Our guest was Ronald G. Turner, who has served as lead consultant on the topic for the National Institute of Corrections and a variety of organizations. During the show, he addresses the conflict between myth and reality in religious programming, shedding light on the concern of chaplains and religious directors about how to meet the safety and security needs of a facility while ensuring inmates’ First Amendment rights. Balanced with discussion about the law, trends in religious programming, and the budgetary effects of religious accommodation, the show provides a brief glimpse into the complexities of religion in corrections with a broad-based view."

  • Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles

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    Strengthening Youth Justice Practices with Developmental Knowledge and Principles

    "For the developmental approach to become more than an abstract framework or a philosophical perspective, practitioners need concrete policies and procedures that align youth justice with the science of adolescent development. This briefing paper describes the Positive Youth Justice model and assesses its potential as a tool for strengthening reform" (p. 1). Sections cover: introduction to positive youth development (PYD); Positive Youth Justice (PYJ) Model; two core assets—learning and doing, and attaching and belonging; developmental knowledge and justice practice; developmental science; Changing the Frame table—six assumptions on the left, three primary lens on the top; implementation challenges; All Evidence-Based Programs Available for Youth Justice table—four population or settings on the left, three intervention approached on the top; the gap in developmental approaches, broadening the reform agenda; and next steps.

  • Forgotten Women: Incarceration and Health Concerns of Minority Women

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    Forgotten Women: Incarceration and Health Concerns of Minority Women

    Issues regarding health conditions and health education of incarcerated minority women are discussed in this paper. Topics covered include: incarcerated women's health care—infectious and chronic diseases, disease-specific care, mental health, and programs specifically for incarcerated females; health education programs in prison—education strategies from intake to reentry, and collaborative prison-community partnerships; return to the community-- post release access to care; and a conclusion explaining the need for "[I]mplementation of easy health care access, health education programs and treatment interventions during and post incarceration allow incarcerated women an opportunity to maintain medical treatment practices and have positive health outcomes" (p. 6).

  • Jail Inmates At Midyear 2014

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    Jail Inmates At Midyear 2014

    This report "[p]resents estimates of the number of jail inmates at midyear 2014 by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and conviction status. This report provides estimates of year-to-year changes from midyear 2000 to midyear 2014 in the number of inmates held, average daily population, rated capacity of local jails, and percent of capacity occupied. It also includes statistics, by jurisdiction size, on changes in the number of inmates, number of admissions, and weekly turnover rate between 2013 and 2014. Estimates and standard errors are based on data collected from the Annual Survey of Jails. Highlights [include]: The number of inmates confined in county and city jails was an estimated 744,600 at midyear 2014, which was significantly lower than the peak of 785,500 inmates at midyear 2008; The jail incarceration rate decreased from a peak of 259 per 100,000 in 2007 to 234 per 100,000 at midyear 2014; The female inmate population increased 18.1% between midyear 2010 and 2014, while the male population declined 3.2%; White inmates accounted for 47% of the total jail population, blacks represented 35%, and Hispanics represented 15%; About 4,200 juveniles age 17 or younger were held in local jails at midyear 2014. They accounted for 0.6% of the confined population, down from 1.2% at midyear 2000.

  • Community Corrections and the Justice Reinvestment Act

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    Community Corrections and the Justice Reinvestment Act

    Topics discussed include: Division of Adult Correction and Juvenile Justice (DACJJ) base budget; community corrections base budget; average daily costs; what community corrections is; probation, parole, and post-release defined; purpose of post-release supervision (PRS); why JRA expanded PRS; Parole and Post-Release Supervision Commission; Judicial Service Coordinators; probation and parole officers; caseload averages; the changing role of probation officers; risk-needs assessment components; supervision levels; electronic monitoring; community supervision programs; Treatment for Effective Community Supervision (TECS); reinvestment; Confinement in Response to Violation (CRV) Centers; and results for prison readmission by type, for probation revocation rate, and for "quick dips" (2-3 day confinement).

  • U.S. Prison Population Trends: Broad Variation Among States in Recent Years

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    U.S. Prison Population Trends: Broad Variation Among States in Recent Years

    "This fact sheet reveals broad variation in nationwide incarceration trends up through 2013. While the number of people in prison in the United States has stabilized in recent years, incarceration trends among the states have varied significantly. Two-thirds of states (34) have experienced at least a modest decline since 1999, while one-third (16) have had continued rises in their prison populations. Nine states have produced double-digit declines during this period, led by New Jersey (29% since 1999), New York (27% since 1999), and California (22% since 2006, though partly offset by increasing jail use)" (p. 1). Since 2009 the total state prison population has decreased 2.4%, with the federal prison population decreasing 1%.

  • Diverting Youth at Probation Intake: The Front-End Diversion Initiative

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    Diverting Youth at Probation Intake: The Front-End Diversion Initiative

    This brief "discusses an effort in Texas to divert youth with suspected mental health needs away from juvenile justice processing. The Front-End Diversion Initiative (FEDI) uses specialized juvenile probation officers to link these youth and their families to community services and divert these youth from adjudication within the juvenile justice system." Sections cover: FEDI introduction; the issue of juvenile offenders' mental health challenges; juvenile justice processing of youth with mental health needs; the role of the juvenile probation officer and specialized supervision; the innovation of using Specialized Juvenile Probation Officer (SJPOs) as a pre-adjudication diversion strategy; the FEDI model; results and lessons learned; and looking forward. It appears that those youth participating in FEDI were significantly less likely to be adjudicated than those youth who were under traditional supervision.

  • Special Feature: Justice in Indian Country: Corrections

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    Special Feature: Justice in Indian Country: Corrections

    This webpage provides a wealth of links to resources related to Native Americans and corrections. Resources range from publications which include various reports and statistics, links to related organizations, and links to grant programs.

  • Analysis of the Use of the Structured Decisionmaking Framework in Three States

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    Analysis of the Use of the Structured Decisionmaking Framework in Three States

    "In recent years, interest in high-quality parole decisionmaking has grown significantly. Paroling authorities are under considerable pressure and subject to substantial public scrutiny as they strive to reach high-quality parole decisions that ensure public safety. In this context, the Legal Decision-Making Lab at Carleton University has been working for nearly a decade to develop and improve a decisionmaking tool for parole practitioners. This tool, the Structured Decisionmaking Framework, acts as a road map or guideline for professional decisionmakers to help them reach consistent, transparent, and defensible high-quality conditional release decisions. It acknowledges the professional expertise and extensive experience of parole decisionmakers by using a structured approach that guides paroling authorities through the process of making parole decisions by considering offender information demonstrated to be closely linked to post-release performance. Given this grounding, the Framework can help paroling authorities incorporate or enhance the use of evidence-based practice in their decisionmaking. Through its technical assistance program, the National Institute of Corrections facilitated opportunities for three states—Ohio, Connecticut, and Kansas—to examine the use of the Structured Decisionmaking Framework in their jurisdictions. The paroling authorities in these states all received training in the use of the Framework. Though the Framework has been extensively validated and its use supported via research in Canada, each state also participated in a small-scale exercise aiming to provide preliminary validation results specific to their jurisdiction. This document summarizes the results of these validation exercises" (p. 2).

    Sections following an executive summary include: the Structured Decisionmaking Framework; results regarding the use of the Framework and case outcomes in Ohio, Connecticut, and Kansas; and implications with concluding remarks. "Based on the results of these preliminary validation exercises, it appears that the Structured Decisionmaking Framework can contribute to high-quality, transparent and consistent parole decisionmaking by the Ohio Parole Board, Connecticut Board of Pardons and Parole, and Kansas Prisoner Review Board … Given the high stakes involved in parole decisionmaking, even minimal improvements in predictive accuracy can result in fewer victims, better management of strained prison capacity, and cost savings. As such, continued investigation of the use of the Structured Decisionmaking Framework is warranted and is supported by preliminary promising results" (p. 46).

  • A Guide to Restroom Access for Transgender Workers

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    A Guide to Restroom Access for Transgender Workers

    This is a great resource for any correctional agency trying to address this issue with staff and/or inmate population. "The Department of Labor’s (DOL) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that all employers under its jurisdiction provide employees with sanitary and available toilet facilities, so that employees will not suffer the adverse health effects that can result if toilets are not available when employees need them. This publication provides guidance to employers on best practices regarding restroom access for transgender workers" (p. 1). Sections comprising this document are: introduction; understanding gender identity; why restroom access is a health and safety matter; OSHA's Sanitation Standard (1910.141); model policies for restroom access for transgender employees; and other federal, state, and local laws—Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Iowa, Vermont, and Washington State.

  • An LASD Guide: Transgender & Gender Non-Conforming Employees

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    An LASD Guide: Transgender & Gender Non-Conforming Employees

    "This publication sets forth guidelines to address the needs of transgender and gender non-conforming employees and clarifies how the law should be implemented in situations where questions may arise about how to protect the legal rights or safety of all employees. These guidelines do not anticipate every situation that might occur with respect to transgender or gender non-conforming employees, and the needs of each employee must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, the goal is to ensure the safety and comfort of transgender or gender non-conforming employees while maximizing the employee’s workplace integration and minimizing stigmatization of the employee" (p. 3). Sections of this guide cover: purpose; definitions; privacy; official records; names and pronouns; restroom accessibility; locker room accessibility; dress codes; transitioning to the job; sex-segregated job assignments; discrimination and harassment; additional resources; and Unit of Assignment (UOA) Transition Plan Guide—before the UOA transition begins, the day the transition will be made known to co-workers, and the first day of the employee's official workplace transition.

  • Nation's Highest Court Weighs Correctional Security and Religious Freedom

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    Nation's Highest Court Weighs Correctional Security and Religious Freedom

    "On Tuesday, Oct. 7, 2014, the second day of the Supreme Court’s 2014 term, the justices heard oral arguments in the case of Holt v. Hobbs, with important implications for corrections. At question in the case was whether or not the Arkansas Department of Correction’s (ADC) no-beard policy violated the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) and whether the half-inch beard requested by inmate Gregory Houston Holt sufficiently satisfies the department’s security goals" (p. 64). Sections of this feature article cover: establishing the precedent for Holt's case--"Of the 44 states that allow inmates to grow at least a half-inch beard, 42 actually have no restrictions on facial hair length whatsoever" (p. 65); Holt's attorneys build a case; ADC's defense of the "No Beard" policy; oral arguments of Holt v. Hobbs; and ruling. "The court released its opinion on Jan. 20, 2015 and held that ADC’s grooming policy did, in fact, violate RLUIPA. ADC, it said, failed to show a “compelling interest” in preventing inmates from hiding contraband or disguising their identities. The court further stated that ADC failed to meet the “least restrictive means” standard, and security concerns could be satisfied by other means. Justice Samuel Alito wrote the opinion of the court, which ruled unanimously, and overturned the decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in favor of Holt. In short, the court held that RLUIPA and RFRA were passed by Congress "in order to provide very broad protection for religious liberty'" (p. 67).

  • Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficiency

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    Short-Term Jail Confinement (Quick Dips) Efficiency

    These presentation slides show the efficacy of using quick dips, 2-3 day confinement in jail, a swift and certain response to non-compliance, for those probationers who violate probation conditions for the first time. Topics discussed include: quick dips overview; analytical framework; sample; matching—variables likely to predict non-compliance or selection for a quick dip; propensity score matching (PSM); intermediate outcomes; supervision outcomes; and conclusions. "Offenders that received a quick dip [77.2%] had greater supervision compliance than offenders in the comparison group [45.9%]."

  • Forty Forward: Learning and Performance Symposium 2014 Participant's Manual and Proceedings

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    Forty Forward: Learning and Performance Symposium 2014 Participant's Manual and Proceedings

    This material is from the inaugural Learning and Performance Symposium. This event focused "on learning and performance practices based on established theory and research as well as the effective practices of successful learning leaders."

    Sections comprising the manual are: the Forty Forward agenda; "Correctional Learning and Performance: A Vision for the 21st Century" (2012) (NIC accession number 026506); needs assessment; "Innovation: Professional Development Series" by Barbara A. Collins and Michael Guevara, "Innovation: Learning and Performance Competency Model" by Lance Anderson, Megan Poore, and Amanda Hall, "Core Competencies for Corrections Learning and Performance Professionals matrix, "Competency Profile of Correctional Trainer (DACUM), "Innovation: A Session with Jane" by Jane Bozarth and Leslie LeMaster, "Innovation: Resiliency in Corrections" by Michael Connelly and Amanda Hall, and "Resilience in Corrections: A Proactive Approach to Changing Conditions" (2014) (028089); "Bits and Bites: Learning and Performance Research: Stop Talking! Stop Power Point! Stop Creating Training Events! by Bernie Iszler, "508 Compliance" by Milan Hatch, and "Blended Learning" by Steven Swisher; collective visioning; documents related to "Forty Forward" in development; and "Favorite Learning and Performance Resources" for Bernie, Leslie, Amanda, Michael, and Scott, "Workplace Learning Annotated Bibliography (2014) (024728), and "Core Competencies for Corrections Learning and Performance Professionals List of Tools and Resources by Competency": Professionalism (Integrity, Professional Development, Self-Awareness), Leadership (Adaptability, Change Management, Decision Making, Facilitate Learning Culture, Problem Solving, Team Development, and Visioning), Information Management (Content Curation, Critical Thinking, Digital Literacy, Research, and Organizational Literacy), Communication (Active Listening, Coaching, Feedback, Collaboration, Influencing Others, Interpersonal Skills, Motivating Others, Public Speaking, and Questioning), Learning and Performance (Innovation, Learning Theory and Research, Learning Needs Analysis, Learning Delivery, Manage Learning Environment, Facilitate Learning Climate, Learning Design, Learning Material Development, Assessment and Evaluation, Leverage Learning Technology, Learning Architectures, Learning Materials and Strategies, Review and Edit Learning Materials, Legal and Regulatory Compliance, and Quality Assurance), and Resource Management (Auditing, Budgeting, Hiring and Staffing, Time Management, Strategic Planning, Strategic Thinking, and Project Management).

    Sections comprising the proceedings include: symposium summary; planning and design; needs assessment process and outcomes—Opening Session; Breakout Session One "Needs Specific to Trainers", Breakout Session Two "Needs by Type of Training", Breakout Session Three "Needs by Staff Role and Responsibilities", Breakout Session Four "Needs by Jurisdiction and Population", Breakout Session Five "Validation"; Closing Session regarding the top ten needs; and content presentation summaries.

  • Justice Reinvestment in Idaho: Analyses and Policy Framework

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    Justice Reinvestment in Idaho: Analyses and Policy Framework

    "If implemented, the package of policies outlined in the framework has the potential to generate significant savings in Idaho and estimates a 15-percent reduction in recidivism. By slowing the growth in the state prison population between 2015 and 2019, these policies will help the state avoid at least $288 million in construction and operating costs that would otherwise be needed to accommodate the forecasted growth. To achieve these outcomes, a portion of the expected savings must be reinvested in funding for training probation and parole officers, providing community-based treatment services to people on probation and parole supervision who are at a higher risk of reoffending, and implementing quality assurance measures." Sections of this report cover: overview of the data-driven justice reinvestment approach; summary of three challenges and related strategic policy solutions; justice reinvestment policy framework; projected impact of justice reinvestment policy framework on Idaho's prison population; reinvestment; Challenge 1—A Revolving Door and five related policy strategies to "strengthen supervision practices and programs to reduce recidivism"; Challenge 2—Insufficient Use of Prison Space and four related policy strategies to "tailor sanctions for supervision violations, provide recidivism outcomes at sentencing, and structure parole to make more productive use of prison space"; and Challenge 3—Insufficient Oversight and four related policy strategies to "access, track, and ensure impact of recidivism-reduction strategies".

  • The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration

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    The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration

    "Jails are far more expensive than previously understood, as significant jail expenditures—such as employee salaries and benefits, health care and education programs for incarcerated people, and general administration—are paid for by county or municipal general funds, and are not reflected in jail budgets. Drawing on surveys from 35 jail jurisdictions from 18 states, this report determined that even the jurisdictions themselves had difficulty pinning down the total cost of their local jail or jail system. It also highlights how the surest way to safely cut costs is to reduce the number of people who enter and stay in jails. In doing so, jurisdictions will be able to save resources and make the investments necessary to address the health and social service needs of their communities, which have for too long landed at the doorstep of their jails." Sections contained in this report include: introduction; methods—measuring the price of jail; results—counting all the costs and the actual price of jails; a tale of two counties—inmate population drive costs; measuring a jail's cost savings; and conclusion. An appendix provides a summary of the survey's results.

  • The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Thinking Local for State Justice Reinvestment

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    The Justice Reinvestment Initiative: Thinking Local for State Justice Reinvestment

    "Local governments across the U.S. are striving to improve public safety and optimize criminal justice investments … This policy brief considers the importance of collaboration with local justice partners in the formulation and implementation of state­ level justice reinvestment solutions. It highlights the need to share data to identify and implement cost­ saving solutions, partner to promote successful policy implementation, and invest locally." Sections cover: sharing data to identify and implement cost-saving solutions; Spotlight—Ohio; partnering with local stakeholders to promote successful policy implementation—sentencing, Spotlight—resource incentives for local placement in Pennsylvania, release mechanisms, community supervision, and California's public safety realignment and voter-led initiatives to reduce incarceration; investing locally; "thinking state" (partnering at the state level) in crafting local justice reinvestment solutions; and conclusion.

  • Justice Reinvestment in Washington: Analysis and Policy Framework

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    Justice Reinvestment in Washington: Analysis and Policy Framework

    "This report summarizes comprehensive analyses of sentencing, corrections, and arrests data presented to the Washington State Justice Reinvestment Taskforce. It outlines strategies and policy options to avert prison population growth by reducing property crime, holding offenders accountable with supervision, reinvesting to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism, and supporting victims of property crime. If implemented, the package of policies outlined in the framework has the potential to avert up to $291 million in prison construction and operating costs and reinvest $90 million by FY2021." Sections of this report cover: overview of the evidence-based, data-driven justice reinvestment approach; projected 6-year outcomes of justice reinvestment policy framework; a summary of the three challenges and strategic policy solutions; Washington State justice reinvestment policy framework; three goals; projected impact of justice reinvestment policy framework on Washington's prison population; reinvestment; Challenge One—High Property Crime and three related policy strategies to reduce property crime and support victims of property crime; Challenge 2—Limited Accountability and two related policy strategies to hold people convicted of property offenses accountable with supervision and, if needed, treatment; Challenge 3—Recidivism and two related policy strategies to reinvest savings from reduced corrections spending to strengthen supervision policies and practices to reduce recidivism; and sustainability.

  • Questions & Answers: The Affordable Care Act and County Jails

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    Questions & Answers: The Affordable Care Act and County Jails

    "The implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has set off reforms in health care systems across the country, including in county jails … Many of those who cycle in and out of county jails may now be able to obtain health insurance through the Health Insurance Marketplace or expanded Medicaid. County jails are therefore in a unique position to connect those in their custody with health insurance during pretrial detention or prior to discharge. Evidence suggests this could contribute to reduced health care and criminal justice costs to the county and lower jail operating costs. This brief will answer some of the most commonly asked questions about the ACA and how it relates to county jails" (p. 1). Answers provided cover: which offenders are eligible for coverage under the ACA; whether jails can bill Marketplace insurance plans for pretrial detainees; whether jails can bill Marketplace insurance plans for sentenced inmates; whether jails can bill Medicaid for pretrial detainees or sentenced inmates; whether Medicaid or Marketplace insurance plans will pay for court-ordered services; the 10 categories of items and services that are considered Essential Health Benefits; what to do if the open enrollment period has closed for the year; the number of inmates a jail can enroll; the differences between suspending and terminating Medicaid coverage; the states that suspend rather than terminate Medicaid; whether individuals can enroll if your state did not expand Medicaid; and how you can find out what your state and county are doing to implement the ACA.

  • The Affordable Care Act and County Jails: A Practical Guide to Strategies and Steps for Implementation

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    The Affordable Care Act and County Jails: A Practical Guide to Strategies and Steps for Implementation

    "The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is expected to help lower county jail healthcare costs, reduce recidivism, and create healthier individuals, families and communities partly because of provisions for expanded Medicaid eligibility and other healthcare affordability measures available to previously uninsured populations, including the offender population in county jails. This guide is meant to help Sheriffs and County Jail Administrators consider practical strategies and suggests steps that support cost savings while producing other benefits through the implementation of healthcare enrollment protocols, education of the inmate population, enrollment assistance and facilitation of the application process upon inmate release" (p. i). Sections of this brief are: why you should implement an ACA plan; some of the expected benefits of provisions of the ACA to county jails and their communities; Step 1—assemble the team and lead from the top; Step 2—determine offender needs/scope; Step 3—develop a screening process and related forms; Step 4—Limited Durable Power of Attorney; Step 5—hire Enrollment Specialists; enrollment reminders; Step 6—educate offenders; inmate program—Healthy Living; Step 7—train and educate staff, and draft procedures; Step 8—track, measure, report (and refine); and facts about the ACA.

  • "Seek, Test, Treat and Retain" For Hepatitis C in the United States Criminal Justice System

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    "Seek, Test, Treat and Retain" For Hepatitis C in the United States Criminal Justice System

    The potential benefits and challenges of applying “seek, test, treat and retain” (STTR) model of care to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the US criminal justice system is examined. Sections of this article cover: seek—the potential of criminal justice populations for case findings; test—expanding HCV testing through opt-out screening; treat—implications of emerging HCV therapies for correctional settings; retain—ensuring adherence during and after incarceration; and challenges to HCV STTR in the criminal justice system, directions for future research, and conclusions. "The burden of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic HCV infection in the USA is increasing and without significantly increased treatment uptake, will likely continue to do so for several decades. The authors argue that the US criminal justice system is an ideal focus for HCV case finding and treatment due to a high prevalence of infection and large volume of individuals in contact with this system. STTR would identify large numbers of HCV infections, leading to opportunities for secondary prevention and primary care. Important challenges to the implementation of STTR include treatment costs and training of prison medical providers" (p. 164).

  • Use of Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition

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    Use of Electronic Control Weapon on a Person Suffering from Delirium or Other Agitated Condition

    "This two-part article focuses on litigation involving the use of Tasers on persons suffering from “excited delirium” or other agitated conditions – including cases involving a death, a non-fatal injury, or taking place in a correctional setting. The second part of this article … offers suggestions for policies and practices plus a listing of relevant resources and references on the subject" (p. 101). Part 1 is comprised of sections covering: what excited delirium (ED); and cases involving deaths—cases finding actual or potential liability, and cases finding no liability. Part 2 has sections about: cases involving non-fatal injury; correctional setting; and some suggestions to consider.

  • Jail Administration [Participants' Manual]

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    Jail Administration [Participants' Manual]

    This 36-hour program focuses on the basic skills and competencies jail administrators need to effectively meet this responsibility. The program covers ten key elements in jail administration: managing risk; using jail standards to establish and assess operations; developing and assessing policy and procedure; determining staffing needs; managing the workforce; managing inmate behavior; managing the budget; developing a fire, safety, and sanitation plan; assessing operations; and working with key stakeholders external to the jail. Includes the Action Plan Workbook.

  • Information Sharing Tool Kit – Second Edition

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    Information Sharing Tool Kit – Second Edition

    "[I]t is sometimes difficult for stakeholders, who represent different interests in the system, to come to agreement as to key issues with respect to information sharing for individual case management. These include the purposes and value to youth of information sharing; what are the appropriate limits on sharing; and how to minimize the potential negative collateral consequences of information sharing such as self-incrimination and net widening. In addition, with respect to data collection, aggregation and sharing for law, policy and program development, stakeholders in jurisdictions often make the mistake of developing systems before identifying the key questions they want answered by the aggregated data. Similarly, with respect to program evaluation and performance measurement, stakeholders must first determine the outcomes they wish to achieve and the indicators they will use to measure progress towards those outcomes, and then take their baseline measurements. Without this preliminary legwork, jurisdictions could set up information sharing systems that do not fully meet their needs." The Models for Change Information Sharing Tool Kit – 2d Edition is "is designed to assist jurisdictions in implementing information and data sharing initiatives in support of juvenile justice reform initiatives. Three distinct levels of categories of information sharing make up the Tool Kit’s Framework": "Category One: Information Sharing for Purposes of Individual Case Planning and Decision-making"; "Category Two: Data Collection and Sharing for Law, Policy, and Program Development; and "Category Three: Data Collection and Sharing for Performance Measurement and Program Evaluation;". Each category contains these sections: federal law overview; state law; interactive scenarios—sets of questions for testing ones knowledge about information/data sharing with accompanying answer keys; principles—"a set of core principles or positive values that should undergrid all information/data collection and sharing projects"; guidelines—a step-by-step process for developing and implementing such a project including related tools that can be used in the guidelines establishment; and case studies.

  • Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators Toolkit: Reducing the Use of Isolation

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    Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators Toolkit: Reducing the Use of Isolation

    A response to behavioral problems in many facilities has been reliance on isolation for acting out youths who are mentally challenged, chronically violent, or gang involved. Instead of being used as a last resort to protect youths from self-harm, hurting others or causing significant property damage that is terminated as soon as a youth regains control, isolation too often becomes the behavior management system by default. Research has made clear that isolating youths for long periods of time or as a consequence for negative behavior undermines the rehabilitative goals of youth corrections … CJCA presents this Toolkit to help its members and the field reduce the use of isolation and ultimately better help youths in juvenile facilities become successful members of the community (p. 5). Sections comprising this Toolkit are: introduction; overview of the issues of isolation and how it is defined; a summary of the research substantiating the negative impacts of isolation; how solitary confinement harms children; CJCA position in the use of isolation; five steps to reduce the use of isolation; conclusion and action steps for juvenile agency administrators; tips from agency directors that have reduced the use of isolation; examples from states that have reduced the use of isolation—Massachusetts, Maine, Indiana, and Alaska; and a statement from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) regarding solitary confinement.

  • Trends in Pretrial Release: State Legislation

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    Trends in Pretrial Release: State Legislation

    "State laws provide a framework for judges and other local officials to determine who is eligible for [pretrial] release and under what conditions. In recent years, state legislation has concentrated largely on individualizing the pretrial process by focusing on specific defendants or offense categories. From 2012 to 2014, 261 new laws in 47 states addressed pretrial policy" (p. 1). This document provides an overview of these legislative enactments. Sections cover pretrial legislation by: risk assessments; victim-specific procedures; victim-specific conditions; pretrial services; and diversion. A chart shows types of release conditions enacted, with states listed in columns according to financial, substance related, electronic monitoring, victim protection, and other conditions. There is also a circle chart showing the types of diversion programs addressed by states—drug, mental health, veteran, non-population specific, human trafficking, and property crimes.

  • Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS)

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    Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS)

    A wealth of links to information about Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS) can be found on this website. Links are organized to the following sections: OWDS Introduction Module from the National Institute of Corrections; OWDS Resource Directory; Job Club resources; job readiness resources; employment related assessments; multimedia materials; employment retention resources; employment interviewing resources; OWDS curriculum; Resource Room information; OWDS basic skills; OWDS Guide for Offenders; and juvenile corrections resources.

  • Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives

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    Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives

    "Segregated housing, commonly known as solitary confinement, is increasingly being recognized in the United States as a human rights issue. While the precise number of people held in segregated housing on any given day is not known with any certainty, estimates run to more than 80,000 in state and federal prisons—which is surely an undercount as these do not include people held in solitary confinement in jails, military facilities, immigration detention centers, or juvenile justice facilities. Evidence mounts that the practice produces many unwanted and harmful outcomes—for the mental and physical health of those placed in isolation, for the public safety of the communities to which most will return, and for the corrections budgets of jurisdictions that rely on it for facility safety. Yet solitary confinement remains a mainstay of prison management and control in the U.S. largely because many policymakers, corrections officials, and members of the general public still subscribe to some or all of the common misconceptions and misguided justifications addressed in this report." The most common misconceptions are corrected while describing some of the promising alternatives that reduce the use of solitary confinement. The ten misconceptions are: conditions in segregated housing are stark but not inhumane; segregated housing is reserved only for the most violent; segregated housing is used only as a last resort; segregated housing is used only for brief periods of time; the harmful effects of segregated housing are overstated and not well understood; segregated housing helps keep prisons and jails safer; segregated housing deters misbehavior and violence; segregated housing is the only way to protect the vulnerable; safe alternatives to segregated housing are expensive; and incarcerated people are rarely released directly to the community from segregated housing. Also included is a copy of the Washington State Department of Corrections "Prison Sanctioning Guidelines: Violation Categories and Range of Sanction Options" (current as of 5/7/15). The grid shows general and serious violation sanction options for the first offense, second offense, third offense, and the maximum ranges of sanction.

  • Profiles in Probation Revocation: Examining the Legal Framework in 21 States

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    Profiles in Probation Revocation: Examining the Legal Framework in 21 States

    "This report compiles—in a convenient format—the results of a yearlong research project on the laws relating to probation revocation in 21 American states. By leafing through the four-page “legal profiles” presented in this volume, readers can easily see how much variation exists in statewide laws of probation and probation revocation, while zeroing in on issues of greatest interest. Whether a reader’s jurisdiction is included in the report’s 21 states or not, the legal profiles contain a wealth of information that will allow for comparison with one’s own system. We think every reader—no matter how experienced in the field—will come across practices or ideas in this study that they never heard of before" (p. 3). Individual state profiles are provided for Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin, and the Model Penal Code (MPC) of 2014. Each profile contains the following information about each state's probation system and revocation process: probation's definition and purpose, probation rate (per 1000,000) and rank (out of 50), forms of probation, term, early termination, supervision, conditions, modification of conditions, extension of probation term, interesting fact, grounds for probation revocation, revocation procedures, grades of offenses, legal standard for revocation, revocation and lesser sanctions, and appeal.

  • State Pretrial Release Legislation Database

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    State Pretrial Release Legislation Database

    This is the place to look for significant pretrial legislation enacted by states starting in 2012. You can search by topic, state, keyword, status (adopted, enacted, override pending, pending, and to governor), bill number, year, and author. Topics are: Bond Forfeiture and Conditions Violations; Budget, Oversight, and Administration; Citation in Lieu of Arrest; Commercial Bond Regulation; Conditions of Pretrial Release; Court Guidance for Release Determinations; Diversion Programs; Eligibility for Pretrial Release; Pretrial Services and Programs; Risk Assessment; Specialized Populations; and Victim Protections and Policy.

  • The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge

    The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge Cover
    The Effects on Re-offending of Custodial vs. Non-custodial Sanctions: An Updated Systematic Review of the State of Knowledge

    "Throughout the Western World, community-based sanctions have become a popular and widely used alternative to custodial sentences. There have been many comparisons of rates of reconviction among former prisoners and those who have served any kind of community sanction. So far, the comparative effects on re-offending of custodial and non-custodial sanctions are largely unknown, due to many uncontrolled variables … The objective is to assess the relative effects of custodial sanctions (imprisonment) and non-custodial ("alternative" or "community") sanctions on re-offending" (p.8). This study shows that the majority of non-custodial sanctions reduce re-offending more than custodial sanctions.

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