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"At a national level, minority clients are less likely to access mental and behavioral health services and drop out of treatment more frequently than nonminority counterparts. While this phenomenon is driven by social and economic factors, it is reasonable to assume it also may be due to a lack of adequate training in culturally congruent therapeutic approaches. The Cultural Enhancement Model presented in this paper addresses engagement factors at the community and individual-level in order to overcome barriers to EBP [evidence-based practice] dissemination and program retention." Sections of this toolkit include: introduction—EBP implementation challenges, cultural competence, cultural adaptation framework, and engagement; the Cultural Enhancement Model (CEM)—Family Integrated Transitions (FIT), and five phases in applying the CEM (identify community advisory team, information-gathering, development, implementation, and evaluation); and summary. Appendixes provide an example of a work plan, sample survey, enhancement proposal example, and FIT Latino Enhancement Materials—common conversational Spanish phrases, "Barriers to Discussing Emotions with Latino Clients", "Conversational Spanish as an Engagement Tool", "Key DBT [Dialectical Behavioral Therapy] Terms and Definitions: English to Spanish Translation", "Working with an Interpreter", "DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Discussing Emotions", " DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Distress Tolerance", DBT Concepts with Latino Clients: Wise Mind", and "Como se Siente Usted? (How Do You Feel?).

A Toolkit for Applying the Cultural Enhancement Model To Evidence-Based Practice Cover

"While victims are not the primary client for you as a tribal probation officer [TPO], you are in a unique position to provide them with critical information and link them with services. This bulletin is designed to provide TPOs with a brief overview of victims’ rights, tips to help coordinate and improve the delivery of victim services, and information about the varied services available to victims of crime" (p. 3). Sections of this publication cover: why tribal probation officers should be concerned about crime victims; the impact of crime on victims; eight specific victims' rights under federal law; barriers to victim participation in criminal and tribal justice processes; victims' rights and related services—safety and reasonable protection, confidentiality, notification and information, participation, victim input, restitution and other legal/financial obligations (LFOs), and victim compensation; effective communication with victims; collaboration for victims' rights implementation and victim assistance services—federal victim services, tribal victim services, and state and local victim services; services for crime victims and survivors; National Information and Referral Resources for Crime Victim/Survivor Assistance—20 national toll-free information, assistance, and referral numbers; and victim/offender and restorative justice programs.

A Tribal Probation Officers Guide to Working with Victims cover

“The articles in this collection provide a multifaceted look at some of the problems that potentially arise for children when the criminal justice, immigration enforcement, and child welfare systems converge in their parents’ life. They provide information and offer insights reflecting diverse perspectives and experiences and lay out a range of policy and practice reform recommendations” (p. 2). The seven chapters contained in this publication are: “Introduction: Children in Harm’s Way” by Susan D. Phillips; “Family Unity in the Face of Immigration Enforcement: Past, Present, and Future” by Emily Butera and Wendy Cervantes; “The Treacherous Triangle: Criminal Justice, Immigration Enforcement, and Child Welfare” by Seth Freed Wessler; “Two-Tiered Justice for Juveniles” by Angie Junck, Charisse Domingo, and Helen Beasley; “Potential Immigration Consequences of State Criminal Convictions” by Steven Weller and John A. Martin; “Immigration Enforcement and Family Courts” by David B. Thronson; and “Unanswered Questions about Immigration Enforcement and Children’s Well-Being” by Alan J. Dettlaff and Yali Lincroft.

Children in Harm's Way Cover

“This report addresses (1) the number and nationalities of incarcerated criminal aliens; (2) the types of offenses for which criminal aliens were arrested and convicted; and (3) the costs associated with incarcerating criminal aliens and the extent to which DOJ's methodology for reimbursing states and localities for incarcerating criminal aliens is current and relevant.” Statistics are provided for criminal alien incarcerations and nationalities, criminal alien arrests and convictions, estimated costs of criminal alien incarcerations; and agency and third-party comments. “Based on our random sample, GAO estimates that the criminal aliens had an average of 7 arrests, 65 percent were arrested at least once for an immigration offense, and about 50 percent were arrested at least once for a drug offense. Immigration, drugs, and traffic violations accounted for about 50 percent of arrest offenses. About 90 percent of the criminal aliens sentenced in federal court in fiscal year 2009 (the most recently available data) were convicted of immigration and drug-related offenses. About 40 percent of individuals convicted as a result of DOJ terrorism-related investigations were aliens.” The average cost to incarcerate criminal aliens is $1.5 billion per year.

“The conference assembled a distinguished group of criminal justice experts … to identify critical points of intervention and concrete, practical reforms to redress racial disproportionality at every stage of criminal proceedings. Rather than belabor what has gone wrong or has not worked, participants shared innovative disparity-reduction practices from around the country, as well as new ideas for reforming policies that produce mass incarceration (p. 7). Ten sections are contained in this publication: conference mission and overview; what the scope of racial disparities are; town hall meeting; charging, plea bargains, and diversion; pretrial incarceration; jury selection; search, seizure, and identification issues; sentencing and community corrections—a tale of two systems; community justice; and recommendations for moving forward.

Criminal Justice Cover

This report provides a very good look at how criminal records, race, and gender impact chances for employment. Sections following an executive summary cover: prisoner reentry and employment; race and the criminal justice system; stereotyping racial minorities and the unemployed; crime and employment; finding work in an era of mass incarceration; women, criminal records, and finding employment after prison; focus and research methods using an on-line job application, in-person application, and an employer survey; results according to females, male, and employers; and critical policy considerations regarding the role of the internet in applying for a job, the job interview, job training, and preparation for work, and expanding social capital for former inmates. "Consistent with prior research, we find differences by race/ethnicity, with blacks and Hispanics generally faring more poorly than whites. The differences for the online application process were not as large as for the in person process, but, nonetheless, we did find that a prison record has a dampening effect on job prospects, particularly in the low-skill food service sector, where ex-prisoners are likely to seek employment during reentry. The employer survey revealed strong effects for criminal justice involvement, with employers expressing preferences for hiring individuals with no prior criminal justice contact" (p. 1-2).

Criminal Stigma, Race, Gender, and Employment: An Expanded Assessment of the Consequences of Imprisonment for Employment Cover

Targeted for criminal justice professionals who train, this curriculum demonstrates communication skills that strengthen positive interaction, evaluates the impact of individual cultural perspectives and personal beliefs on the effectiveness of interacting with others, and identifies positive and negative relationships that are impacted by cultural diversity in the work place. Section topics include creating a common understanding, what it means to be different in your organization, communicating across cultures, and development of cultural competency. The training package consists of a one volume, loose-leaf manual and a videotape that depicts numerous vignettes of interactions between people of different ethnic backgrounds. This thirty-six-hour course was delivered to trainers of the Missouri Department of Corrections Central Training Academy, St. Louis, Missouri, June 1-5, 1992.

Cultural Diversity: Training for Trainers Cover

“Compiled for two decades by the Australian Institute of Criminology, this report found both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous rates of deaths in custody have decreased over the last decade and are now some of the lowest ever seen (0.16 per 100 Indigenous prisoners and 0.22 per 100 non-Indigenous prisoners in 2010–11) … While Indigenous prisoners continue to be statistically less likely to die in custody than non-Indigenous prisoners, there is a concerning trend emerging, as the actual number of Indigenous deaths in prison are rising again, with 14 in 2009-10 which is equal to the highest on record.” Sections of this report following an executive summary include: introduction and context; National Deaths in Custody Program; overview of all deaths in custody; deaths in prison custody; deaths in juvenile justice custody; deaths in police custody and custody-related operations; motor vehicle pursuit and shooting deaths; and conclusion.

Deaths in Custody in Australia to 30 June 2011: Twenty Years of Monitoring by the National Deaths in Custody Program Since the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Cover

"This guide is intended to provide tribal probation personnel with information on how the screening and assessment process can facilitate and promote offender accountability and long-term behavior change" (p. 2). Sections comprising this publication are: community corrections in context; the screening and assessment process; benefits of screening and assessment tools; choosing a tool; challenges to using assessment instruments; using screening and assessment results; and conclusion. Appendixes describe various screening and assessment tools and domestic violence assessment tools.

Desktop Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel: The Screening and Assessment Process Cover

"Despite positive trends regarding juvenile interactions with the justice system, racial disparities remain as a persistent problem. African-American youth comprise 17 percent of the population, but comprise 31 percent of all arrested youth. This briefing paper explains how disproportionate minority contact (DMC) with the juvenile justice system is measured and takes a close look at drug offenses, property crimes, and status offenses. Racial disparities weaken the credibility of a justice system that purports to treat everyone equally." Sections cover: what "contact" is; the extent of the problem; measuring DMC using the Relative Rate Index (RRI); encounters with the justice system—disproportionate arrest rates for status offenders, property crime arrests, and drug offenses; how policy choices worsen disparities—school discipline as a law enforcement issue, valid court order (VCO), and geography and population density; disproportionate minority confinement—RRI for pre- and post-adjudication detention and placement; and eliminating disproportionate minority contact by reauthorizing and strengthening the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).

Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System Cover

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